Search Results

IMC 60    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 60

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
C 77 [TAF]    Toxopeus, H., 1968
T 85 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
T 87 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
 Father to:
C 78 [TAF]    Toxopeus, H., 1968
T 72 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
T 73 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938230   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686893
BioSample: SAMN12500391
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000038
Run: SRR9938274   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686849
BioSample: SAMN12500391
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000038
Run: SRR9938275   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686848
BioSample: SAMN12500391
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000038
Run: SRR9938276   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686847
BioSample: SAMN12500391
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000038

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1617     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 60
   - Year of Accession: 2006
• Accession: RUQ 1617B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 60
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10339
   - Local Name: IMC-60
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 60
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 60

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Frosty Pod Rot
31.00 % Infection (Field reaction).
Note: Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Moderate Resistance, 37.00 % Infection
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod and natural incidence of the disease over 9 years.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.5 and Internal Severety = 3.8
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
1.80 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Field reaction).
Note: Natural incidence of the disease over 3 years.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
3.40 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora
Note: Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Blaha, G. & Lotode, R., 1976
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Resistant
 Togo - IRCC Togo, 1986
Tolerant
 Lockwood, G., 1986
 Witches Broom
Tolerant
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

 YIELD

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Pod Index: 20.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
Yield: 370 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 21.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 105.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: low
 Reference
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
Yield: 656 kg ha-1 yr-1
Note: 3 year mean
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Number: 46.0
Dry Weight: 1.17 g
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 50.0
Total Wet Weight: 72.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.94 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.8 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 44.3
Maximum Number: 57
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.41 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.95 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.8 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 6.9 mm
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Colour: dark purple
Shape: oval
Size: small
Number: 54.0
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Butterfat Content: 56.00 %
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 6.20 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 55.84 %
Testa: 4.81 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 16 mm
Length: 150.0 mm
Breadth: 91.0 mm
Colour: green
Weight: 540.0 g
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.64
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 151.0 mm
Breadth: 82.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: slightly obtuse - obtuse
Rugosity: very slight
Husk Thickness: 10.95 mm (12.6 - 9.3)
Length: 168.0 mm
Breadth: 91.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 639.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 3
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.84
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.49
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Shape: oval
Rugosity: smooth
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1617
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.80 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.34 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 66.46 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.61 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 258.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.80 g
Specific Leaf Area: 144.30 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: brownish orange
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 139 mm
Length: 291.0 mm
Width: 118.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.50
Basal Angle: 163.6 °
Apical Angle: 63.4 °
Petiole Length: 18 mm
Pulvinus Length: 15 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.69 mm
Ligule Width: 1.94 mm
Ovule Number: 48
Style Length: 1.92 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.53 mm
Sepal Length: 7.80 mm
Ligule Length: 7.33 mm
Ligule Width: 2.66 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.99 mm
Ovary Length: 1.28 mm
Style Length: 2.49 mm
Staminode Length: 7.46 mm
Pedicel Colour: pale red
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Posnette, A.F., 1945
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Toxopeus, H. (1968) Establishment of cacao clones in Nigeria.. Euphytica, 17: pp 38-45.
Ghana - WACRI (No Date) WACRI Cocoa Varieties. Explanatory notes.. West African Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. A. Asare Nyako, Ghanaian Cocoa Board, Ghana. Personal Communication.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Honduras - CEDEC (1994) List of accessions in CEDEC, La Masica, Honduras.. J.A. Sanchez, FHIA, Honduras. Personal Communication.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W. (2006) Caracterización de Genotipos Superiores de Cacao Seleccionados por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético del CATIE por Su Rendimiento Y/O Resistencia a Moniliasis. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica (2006). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Blaha, G. & Lotode, R. (1976) Un critere primordial de selection du cacaoyer au Cameroun: la resistance a la pourriture brune des cabossees ( Phytophthora palmivora ).. Cafe, Cacao, The 20(2): pp. 97-116.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1986) Collection de cacaoyers. Composition au 1er Janvier, 1986. IRCC Togo.. A.B. Eskes, IRCC, Montpellier, France. Personal Communication.
Lockwood, G. (1986) Report on cocoa breeding & seed production.. Unpublished report for the Government of Ghana, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, CDC (UK.). pp. 23.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms.. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
KKO (1993) Information from the KKO cocoa germplasm database.. Information supplied on computer diskette by C. Cilas, CIRAD-CP, France.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Posnette, A.F. (1945) Incompatibility in Amazon cacao.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 22: pp. 184-187.