Search Results

IMC 67    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: G VI 51, EET 116 [IMP], EET IMP 116, IQUITOS MIXED 67

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 RECOMMENDED PLANTING MATERIAL    Disclaimer

 Batista, Lepido J., 2009
Recommended for planting in:
Dominican Republic
Recommended by: Instituto Dominicano de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales (IDIAF), Dominican Republic
 Reference

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Iquitos, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 73.00 W, 3.50 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
AHK 27    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
AHK 29    Bartley, B.G.D., 1998
AHK 30    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
AHK 45    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
AX 261    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 262    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 265    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 266    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 267    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 268    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 28    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 376    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 382    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
CC 211    Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
CC 213    Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
CEPEC 30    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 31    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 52    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 53    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 54    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 55    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 56    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 57    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 58    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 59    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 60    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 69    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 70    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 71    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 72    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 73    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
DE 62    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DOPOL 6    Bartley, B.G.D., 1983
EET 458 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
EET 465 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
EQX 83 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
HAA 4 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 5 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 6 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 8 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HY 271418    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271418 /1    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271418 /2    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271418 /4    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271418 /6    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271418 /7    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /2    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /3    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /4    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /5    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /6    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /7    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420    Vazquez, F., 1994
HY 271420 /1    Vazquez, F., 1994
IFC 1064 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1255 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1274 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1279 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1311 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1329 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
TSH 1032    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 723    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 728    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 729    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 730    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 919    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 969    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 979    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 980    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 981    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 982    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 984    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 985    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
 Father to:
AX 229    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 230    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 486    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 488    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 490    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
CEPEC 27    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 28    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 29    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 32    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 33    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
DE 3    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 60    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DOPOL 6    Bartley, B.G.D., 1983
EQX 21 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
EQX 25 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
EQX 29 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
EQX 31 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
KHA 31    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
KHA 61    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
KHA 90    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
KKM 17    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993
MX 14 [TTO]    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
MX 15 [TTO]    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
MX 16 [TTO]    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
MX 75 [TTO]    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 1    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 2    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 3    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 36    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 37    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 4    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 5    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 6    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 8    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
TSA 1034    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1073    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 620    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 624    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 633    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 641    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
TSA 644    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
TSA 644    Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
TSA 645    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 648    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 651    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 654    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
TSA 654    Trinidad - Las Hermanas, No Date
TSA 656    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
TSA 662    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 672    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 673    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSA 833    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 836    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 837    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 862    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 924    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 1028    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1029    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 1040    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 852    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 866    Trinidad - Las Hermanas, No Date
TSH 907    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 908    Trinidad - Las Hermanas, No Date
TSH 920    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 973    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 974    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 975    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 976    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 977    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 978    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 986    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 999    Freeman, W.E., No Date

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774229   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629595
BioSample: SAMN09934465
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: Tc17736

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1056     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 2000
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 204
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 140
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: IMC 67 Quadra 1
   - Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-67
• Local Name: IMC-67/S.DALVA
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10340
   - Local Name: IMC-67
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1965
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-67
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: EET - 116
   - Year of Accession: 1967
• Local Name: IMC-67
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC67
   - Year of Accession: 1970
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1949
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1958
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1954
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 62
   - Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: G VI 51
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00440
   - Local Name: IMC67
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1995   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1987
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2009   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 67
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 243037     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1961
• Accession: TARS 16697 B     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1961
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35761     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 2002
• Accession: MIA 28338     GRIN-Global 
   - Cross: IMC 67 x SCA 12 
   - Local Name: IMC67 X SCA12
   - Year of Accession: 1982
• Accession: MIA 28339     GRIN-Global 
   - Cross: IMC 67 x UF 613 
   - Local Name: IMC67 X UF613
   - Year of Accession: 1982
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 67

 DISEASE

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 Canker
10.00 % Infection (Trunk).
Note: Percentage infection of trunk..
 Sharma, M., 1992
 Ceratocystis
Moderate Resistance (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium (x1) and perithecium (x2) development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium (x1) development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
Resistant
 Morera, J & Mora, A., 1990
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Resistant
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Resistant
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.4 and Internal Severety = 4.4
 Phillips, W., 1997
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.4 and Internal Severety = 4.4
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Cross: IMC 67 x AML [MAL] 
17.70 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = ABC
 Jagoret, P. et al., 1995
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (adaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (abaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Moderately Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
 Kebe, 1999
Moderately Susceptible, 90.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Lawrence, J.S., 1978
Resistant, 5.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe and not wounded
 Lopez-Baez, O. et al., 1996
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Shripat, C., 1995
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1980
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and punch inoculated
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, 93.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Blaha, G. & Lotode, R., 1976
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Resistant
 Togo - IRCC Togo, 1986
 Vascular Streak Dieback
Cross: IMC 67 x PA 156 [PER] 
Moderately Susceptible
 Bong, C.L. et al., 1995
Cross: SCA 9  x IMC 67
Tolerant
 Bong, C.L. et al., 1995
Resistant
 Sharma, M., 1992
 Witches Broom
Resistant
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990

 PESTS

 Red Squirrel
Susceptible (Sciurus granatensis)
 Warren, J. & Emamdie, D., 1993

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 101.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 22.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 20.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Clapperton, J. et al., 1994
Seed Index: 78.0 (dried beans per 100g)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Productivity: low
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 108.6 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: medium
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 24.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 USDA, 2010
Yield: 780 kg ha-1 yr-1
Yield (wet beans per tree): 0.52 kg
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 45.8
Total Dry Weight: 45.3 g
Dry Weight: 0.99 g
Note: 39 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 48.0
Total Wet Weight: 79.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.04 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.7 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 42.3
Maximum Number: 59
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.34 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.92 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.4 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.4 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 92 %
Colour Light Purple: 8 %
Shape: round
Length: 22.8 mm
Width: 11.2 mm
Thickness: 7.9 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.30 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 46.0
Total Wet Weight: 62.1 g
Total Dry Weight: 92.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.87 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.3 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.4 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 6.5 mm
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Colour: dark purple
Shape: oval
Size: small
Number: 55.0
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 92 %
Colour Light Purple: 8 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.30 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.2 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.9 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 49.9
Dry Weight: 1.19 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.80 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 58.01 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 55.93 %
Note: 8 plants sampled
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 54.30 %
Testa: 6.80 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 199.0 mm
Breadth: 98.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: very slight
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 10.3 mm (12 - 8.6)
Length: 197.0 mm
Breadth: 93.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 735.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 5
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.11
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.71
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: moderate
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Pods Per Tree: 3
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: cundeamor
Husk Thickness: 14.3 mm
Length: 191.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: yellow / yellow and red (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: very hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.00
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 14.70 mm
Size: large
Length: 183.0 mm
Breadth: 88.1 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 398.04 g
Placenta Weight: 13.32 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.07
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Shape: oval
Rugosity: smooth
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: cundeamor
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 14.3 mm
Length: 191.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: yellow and green / yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.24
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 191.7 mm
Breadth: 95.8 mm
Weight: 755.1 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.00
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1056
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.28 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.25 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 50.09 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.67 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 282.90 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.89 g
Specific Leaf Area: 150.30 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 CADMIUM

 Lewis, Caleb et al., 2018
Tissue: leaf
Mean Cadmium Content: 1.02 %
Accumulation: low
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Colour: green
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: green
 Reference

 LEAF

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 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 3.07
Basal Angle: 153.0 °
Apical Angle: 76.0 °
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 136 mm
Length: 300.0 mm
Width: 91.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.30
Basal Angle: 129.1 °
Apical Angle: 65.9 °
Petiole Length: 16 mm
Pulvinus Length: 15 mm
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 3.07
Basal Angle: 153.0 °
Apical Angle: 76.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 9.00 mm
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.96 mm
Ligule Width: 2.77 mm
Ovule Number: 48
Style Length: 2.42 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Coral, F.J. & Soria, V.J., 1974
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.85 mm
Sepal Length: 8.20 mm
Ligule Length: 7.23 mm
Ligule Width: 2.74 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.02 mm
Ovary Length: 1.49 mm
Style Length: 2.68 mm
Staminode Length: 7.69 mm
Pedicel Colour: pale red
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.30 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 7.30 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 2.92
Ligule Length: 2.60 mm
Ligule Width: 2.40 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.07
Ribbon Length: 2.80 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.10 mm
Ovary Length: 1.50 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.38
Ovule Number: 63
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 2.10 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 6.90 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: intense anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: absent
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: anthocyanin absent
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Length: 7.35 mm
Guide Line Length: 4.14 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.98 mm
Sepal Length: 7.84 mm
Ligule Length: 2.87 mm
Ligule Width: 2.73 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.19 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.17 mm
Ovary Length: 1.52 mm
Ovule Number: 50
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.34 mm
Pedicel Length: 16.45 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin, slight anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: yellow
Stamen Colour: negligible anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.30 mm
Sepal Colour: green
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 7.30 mm
Ligule Length: 2.60 mm
Ligule Width: 2.40 mm
Ribbon Length: 2.80 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.10 mm
Ovary Length: 1.50 mm
Ovule Number: 63
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 2.10 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 6.90 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellow, yellow (ab), white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: absent
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

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Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Dominican Republic - CDC (1987) Informe de los trabajos de indentificacion clonal realizados por el Dr. B.G.Bartley durante su visita a la Estacion "Mata Larga".. Unpublished of the Comision del Cacau, Dominican Republic. pp 14
IDIAF (2011) Cocoa accessions held in the Dominican Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Research (IDIAF).. M. Ventura, personal communication, September 2011.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Fiji - Naduruloulou (1992) Cocoa collection - Fiji Naduruloulou Research Station.. G. Prasad, Koronivia Research Station, Nausari, Fiji. Personal Communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Gabon - SOCAGAB (1992) Liste des clones de la collection du C.M.C.E. de Minkong (Oyem, Gabon).. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD, Kourou, Guyane. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Grenada - MALF (1994) Notes on the cocoa germplasm in Grenada.. C.A. Williams, Grenada Cocoa Association, Grenada. Personal Communication.
Guatemala - Los Brilliantes (1994) Lista de clones existentes en la Estacion de Investigacion y Produccion Agricola "Los Brillantes" a Agosto 1994.. M.T. Reyes Barrios, EIAP Guatemala. Personal Communication.
Chesney, P.E. (2008) Guyana accessions.. Personal communication, September 2008.
Honduras - CEDEC (1994) List of accessions in CEDEC, La Masica, Honduras.. J.A. Sanchez, FHIA, Honduras. Personal Communication.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
India - Kerala (1991) Report of germplasm collection at Kerala Agricultural University.. R.V. Nair, Unpublished Report, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India, pp. 3.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Lopez-Baez, O., Cueto-Moreno, J. & Fraire-Vazquez, G. (1995) Progressos en el mejoramiento genetico del cacao Theobroma cacao L. en Mexico.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding Strategies, Kuala Lumpur, 1994. INGENIC, Reading, U.K. pp. 18-25.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Luis F. García Carrión (2009) Catalogo de Cultivares de Cacao del Peru.
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Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Iwaro, D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1997) Phytophthora resistance in cacao (Theobroma cacao): Influence of pod morphological characteristics.. Plant Pathology 46: pp. 557-565
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Bong, C.L., Tay, E.B., Lee, M.T. & Chong, T.C. (1995) Comparative study on cultural practices and planting materials in the management of vascular streak dieback and productivity in cocoa.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 197-203.
Warren, J. & Emamdie, D. (1993) Rodent resistance in cacao Theobroma cacao L.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 70: pp.286-288
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Clapperton, J., Yow, S., Chan, J., Lim, D., Lockwood, R., Romanczyk, L. & Hammerstone, J. (1994) The contribution of genotype to cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) flavour.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 71(4): pp. 303-308.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
USDA (2010) Yield and pedigree data for superior TARS clones produced at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.. Received from Andrew Daymond.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
KKO (1993) Information from the KKO cocoa germplasm database.. Information supplied on computer diskette by C. Cilas, CIRAD-CP, France.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Lewis, Caleb, Adrian M. Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie & Pathmanathan Umaharan (2018) Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.. Science of the Total Environment 640–641, 696–703
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Coral, F.J. & Soria, V.J. (1974) Diferentes graus de autocompatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L.. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1972, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad. pp. 77-81.