Search Results

IMC 23    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 23

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 559
   - Local Name: IMC 23
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 23
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 23
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 23
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 23
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 23

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Tolerant
 Lockwood, G., 1986
 Vascular Streak Dieback
42.60 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: 14.3% of trees with <30% infected branches, 19.3% of trees with 30 to 70% infected branches, 9.0% of trees with >70% infected branches.. Sime Darby Plantations, Devon Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
43.33 % Infection
Note: 18 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 101.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 21.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 103.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 20.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 26.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 23.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 117.3 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 31.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 46.3
Dry Weight: 0.99 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 49.4
Total Dry Weight: 48.1 g
Dry Weight: 0.97 g
Note: 58 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 51.0
Total Wet Weight: 53.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.75 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.8 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 53.0
Total Wet Weight: 65.0 g
Total Dry Weight: 50.4 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.80 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.2 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 5.5 mm
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 41.9
Dry Weight: 0.85 g
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 45.4
Dry Weight: 1.26 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.60 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 59.35 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 55.08 %
Note: 13 plants sampled
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 147.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 1.6 MPa ? 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 14.25 mm
Size: medium
Length: 157.4 mm
Breadth: 82.2 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 324.06 g
Placenta Weight: 9.95 g
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.91
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 179.6 mm
Breadth: 91.5 mm
Weight: 649.4 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.00
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 113 mm
Length: 244.0 mm
Width: 87.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 132.5 °
Apical Angle: 74.3 °
Petiole Length: 7 mm
Pulvinus Length: 16 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 8.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.71 mm
Ligule Width: 2.81 mm
Ovule Number: 55
Style Length: 2.24 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: anthocyanin absent
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Length: 6.74 mm
Guide Line Length: 3.81 mm
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Width: 2.73 mm
Sepal Length: 7.49 mm
Ligule Length: 2.70 mm
Ligule Width: 2.91 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.41 mm
Ribbon Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.16 mm
Ovary Length: 1.39 mm
Ovule Number: 58
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.25 mm
Pedicel Length: 16.89 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Lockwood, G. (1986) Report on cocoa breeding & seed production.. Unpublished report for the Government of Ghana, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, CDC (UK.). pp. 23.
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.