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IMC 53    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 53

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
T 17 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-53
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 53
   - Year of Accession: 1967
• Cross: IMC 31  x IMC 53
   - Local Name: IMC - 31 x IMC -53
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC53
   - Year of Accession: 1975
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 53
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 53

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Vascular Streak Dieback
73.75 % Infection
Note: 16 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Tolerant
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 129.8 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 30.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 119.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 23.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 25.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 42.9
Dry Weight: 0.77 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 50.6
Total Dry Weight: 42.6 g
Dry Weight: 0.84 g
Note: 55 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 52.0
Total Wet Weight: 57.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.77 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.4 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 55.1
Dry Weight: 0.85 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 55.30 %
Note: 8 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.80 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 55.00 %
Testa: 6.28 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 169.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 173.7 mm
Breadth: 90.2 mm
Weight: 500.6 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.90
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 143 mm
Length: 292.0 mm
Width: 102.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 143.3 °
Apical Angle: 58.7 °
Petiole Length: 17 mm
Pulvinus Length: 15 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.05 mm
Ligule Width: 2.77 mm
Ovule Number: 59
Style Length: 2.23 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Ghana - WACRI (No Date) WACRI Cocoa Varieties. Explanatory notes.. West African Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. A. Asare Nyako, Ghanaian Cocoa Board, Ghana. Personal Communication.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms.. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.