Search Results

IMC 105    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 105

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC II'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938232   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686891
BioSample: SAMN12500393
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000011
Run: SRR9938272   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686851
BioSample: SAMN12500393
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000011
Run: SRR9938277   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686846
BioSample: SAMN12500393
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000011
Run: SRR9938278   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686845
BioSample: SAMN12500393
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000011

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 863     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 105
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22070
   - Local Name: IMC-105
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 105
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 105
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 105
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 105
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668486     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 105
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35762     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 105
   - Year of Accession: 2002

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Susceptible
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Vascular Streak Dieback
25.00 % Infection
Note: 18 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 135.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 31.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 121.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 27.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 22.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 25.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 42.9
Dry Weight: 0.74 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 44.8
Total Dry Weight: 36.9 g
Dry Weight: 0.82 g
Note: 50 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 52.0
Total Wet Weight: 61.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.85 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.6 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 44.0
Total Wet Weight: 53.3 g
Total Dry Weight: 55.3 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.8 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.1 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 34.9
Dry Weight: 1.07 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.80 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 58.39 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 55.78 %
Note: 6 plants sampled
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 53.93 %
Testa: 5.51 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 200.0 mm
Breadth: 89.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: angoleta
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 17.65 mm
Size: large
Length: 190.4 mm
Breadth: 87.3 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 435.26 g
Placenta Weight: 11.97 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.18
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 176.3 mm
Breadth: 85.1 mm
Weight: 507.5 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.10
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 863
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.93 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.11 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.22 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 63.97 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.68 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 3
Leaf Area: 223.90 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.50 g
Specific Leaf Area: 150.90 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 CADMIUM

 Lewis, Caleb et al., 2018
Tissue: bean
Mean Cadmium Content: 1.89 %
Accumulation: high
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 135 mm
Length: 296.0 mm
Width: 102.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.90
Basal Angle: 125.7 °
Apical Angle: 78.1 °
Petiole Length: 20 mm
Pulvinus Length: 15 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.98 mm
Ligule Width: 2.55 mm
Ovule Number: 51
Style Length: 2.25 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Length: 7.17 mm
Guide Line Length: 3.96 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 3.03 mm
Sepal Length: 7.93 mm
Ligule Length: 2.98 mm
Ligule Width: 2.62 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.23 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.08 mm
Ovary Length: 1.46 mm
Ovule Number: 53
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.23 mm
Pedicel Length: 17.78 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin, anthocyanin absent (ab), moderate anthocyanin (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Lewis, Caleb, Adrian M. Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie & Pathmanathan Umaharan (2018) Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.. Science of the Total Environment 640–641, 696–703
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.