Search Results

IMC 55    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 55

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 836     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 55
   - Year of Accession: 1998
• Accession: RUQ 836B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 55
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1322
   - Local Name: IMC 55
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21931
   - Local Name: IMC-55
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 55
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 55
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 55

 DISEASE

 Frosty Pod Rot
Moderate Resistance
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 23.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 24.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 52.0
Total Wet Weight: 63.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.83 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.3 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.3 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 51.0
Total Wet Weight: 59.7 g
Total Dry Weight: 51.3 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.81 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.5 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 5.2 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 54.60 %
Testa: 6.90 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 166.0 mm
Breadth: 96.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 15.50 mm
Size: small
Length: 157.6 mm
Breadth: 90.3 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 377.44 g
Placenta Weight: 7.99 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.74
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 836
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.93 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.10 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.87 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 43.77 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.47 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 3
Leaf Area: 203.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.29 g
Specific Leaf Area: 164.70 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 134 mm
Length: 292.0 mm
Width: 100.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.90
Basal Angle: 130.9 °
Apical Angle: 70.0 °
Petiole Length: 21 mm
Pulvinus Length: 16 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.10 mm
Ligule Width: 2.47 mm
Ovule Number: 51
Style Length: 2.15 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Length: 6.27 mm
Guide Line Length: 4.11 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.58 mm
Sepal Length: 7.02 mm
Ligule Length: 2.87 mm
Ligule Width: 2.43 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.10 mm
Ribbon Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.07 mm
Ovary Length: 1.33 mm
Ovule Number: 52
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.22 mm
Pedicel Length: 15.17 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), moderate anthocyanin (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1994) Accessions in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection obtained from USDA Mayaguez since 1991.. M.T. Lee, MCB, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.