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IMC 85    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 85

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22170
   - Local Name: IMC-85
   - Year of Accession: 2015
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC85
   - Year of Accession: 1975
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00531
   - Local Name: IMC85
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 85
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 85
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 85
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 85

 DISEASE

 Vascular Streak Dieback
64.50 % Infection
Note: 20 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 99.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 24.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 128.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 24.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 29.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 40.2
Dry Weight: 1.01 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 51.9
Total Dry Weight: 40.5 g
Dry Weight: 0.78 g
Note: 54 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 52.0
Total Wet Weight: 52.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.66 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.9 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 46.6
Dry Weight: 1.05 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.70 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 59.54 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.60 %
Note: 10 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 7.40 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 54.75 %
Testa: 7.99 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 170.0 mm
Breadth: 86.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 189.4 mm
Breadth: 91.7 mm
Weight: 647.1 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.10
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1666
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.13 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.10 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.27 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 61.23 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.05 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 265.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.62 g
Specific Leaf Area: 167.20 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 125 mm
Length: 277.0 mm
Width: 93.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.00
Basal Angle: 154.4 °
Apical Angle: 75.7 °
Petiole Length: 7 mm
Pulvinus Length: 12 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.50 mm
Ligule Width: 2.69 mm
Ovule Number: 55
Style Length: 1.98 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.