Search Results

PA 150 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 150 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Identified as an off-type (using SSR markers) in the IDIAF collection, Dominican Republic [PA-150]   IDIAF, 2011

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Rio Maranon, Parinari, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 74.60 W, 4.60 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
CC 212    Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
CEPEC 1000    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 46    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
FB 21    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
IFC 1201 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1212 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1213 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1260 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1296 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1312 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1319 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
IFC 1327 [CIV]    Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
PH 16 [BRA]    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
VB 1151    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
VB 1156    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
VB 1151    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
VB 1139    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva et al., 2006
 Father to:
AX 556    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari IV'   Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774233   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629591
BioSample: SAMN09934519
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: TC00501

 HELD IN

Show Details Hide Details

Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1731     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2015
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 194
   - Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 1980
• Accession: 194
   - Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 1981
• Accession: 194
   - Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 1983
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 130
   - Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: PA 150 Quadra 1
   - Local Name: PA 150
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-150
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 19518
   - Local Name: PA-150
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA-150 (Incorrecto)
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 150
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 1970
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00459
   - Local Name: PA 150
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 150
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2009   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 150
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1943
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668478     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 150 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35773     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 150
   - Year of Accession: 2002

 DISEASE

Show Details Hide Details

 Ceratocystis
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Phytophthora
14.95 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = AB
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
 Kebe, 1999
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 2 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
Resistant, sp. P. capsici (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995
Resistant, sp. P. citrophthora (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995
Resistant, sp. P. citrophthora
Note: Average score = 1.5.
 Lopez, U.V. et al., 2006
 Witches Broom
Susceptible (Seedling).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Susceptible (Field Reaction).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997

 PESTS

Show Details Hide Details

 Mirids
Moderate Damage
Note: Trial G8. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = AB
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Moderate Damage
 N'Goran, J.A.K. et al., 1993
Resistant
 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003

 YIELD

Show Details Hide Details

 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 114.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 29.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 27.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Yield: 1456 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference

 BEAN

Show Details Hide Details

 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 39.0
Dry Weight: 0.87 g
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 43.0
Total Wet Weight: 49.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.85 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.0 mm
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Colour: dark purple
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.30 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

Show Details Hide Details

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: wideshoulder
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 78.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 121 mm
Length: 226.0 mm
Width: 82.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 101.7 °
Apical Angle: 67.4 °
Petiole Length: 21 mm
Pulvinus Length: 14 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

Show Details Hide Details

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.86 mm
Ligule Width: 2.69 mm
Ovule Number: 47
Style Length: 2.29 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Yamada, M. et al., 1982
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
IDIAF (2011) Cocoa accessions held in the Dominican Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Research (IDIAF).. M. Ventura, personal communication, September 2011.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance.. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Stela Dalva V. M. Silva, Augusto Roberto S. Gomes, Edmundo P. Mandarino, Lindolfo P. dos S. Filho & Virgínia O. Damaceno (2006) Indicações de Resistência à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis em Genótipos de Cacaueiros no Sul da Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica (2006). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database.. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Dominican Republic - CDC (1987) Informe de los trabajos de indentificacion clonal realizados por el Dr. B.G.Bartley durante su visita a la Estacion "Mata Larga".. Unpublished of the Comision del Cacau, Dominican Republic. pp 14
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Luis F. García Carrión (2009) Catalogo de Cultivares de Cacao del Peru.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Sounigo, O., N'Goran, J., Coulibaly, N., Clement, D. & Lachenaud, P. (1995) Evaluation de clones de cacaoyers pour la productivite, la resistance aux mirides et la resistance a la pourriture des cabosses.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 375-381.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Luz, E.D.M.N., Silva, S.D.V.M., Yamada, M.M., Lopes, U.V., Braga, M.C.T. & Brugnerotto, M.I.B. (1995) Cacao cultivars selected for resistance to Phytophthora capsici, P. palmivora and P. citrophthora in Bahia, Brazil.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 97-98.
Kebe (1999) Data from Cote d'Ivoire on black pod resistance.. Kebe, report on CAOBISCO project. Forwarded to ICGD by Dr. A.B.Eskes, IPGRI.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Lopez, U.V., Paim, M., Luz, E.D.N., Silva, S.D.V.M., Gramacho, K.P. and Pires, J.L. (2006) Resistance of Cacao Farmer Selections to Phytophthora citrophthora in Brazil.. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica (2006). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M. (1997) Evaluating resistance/tolerance to Witches' Broom disease in Bahia, Brazil.. Final Report to ACRI. CEPLAC/CEPEC, February, 1997. pp. 56. Data supplied to ICGD by Luz & Silva.
N'Goran, J.A.K., Lachenaud, P., Bastide P., & Paulin, D. (1993) Cocoa germplasm conservation initiatives in Cote d'Ivoire.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Conservation, Characterisation and Utilisation of Cocoa Genetic Resources in the 21st Century. CRU, UWI, Trinidad. pp. 221-227.
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
KKO (1993) Information from the KKO cocoa germplasm database.. Information supplied on computer diskette by C. Cilas, CIRAD-CP, France.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Yamada, M., Bartley, B.G.D., Castro, G.C.T.de, & Melo, G.R.P. (1982) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. I. Relacioes fenotipicas na familia PA (Parinari).. Revista Theobroma 12 (3): 163-167.