Search Results

IMC 76    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 76

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Iquitos, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 73.00 W, 3.50 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
T 101 [POS]    Olatoye, S.T. & Esan, E.B., 1993
T 90 [POS]    Adomako, B. & Adu-Ampomah, Y., 2000
 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 205
   - Local Name: IMC 76
   - Year of Accession: 1978
• Accession: 205
   - Local Name: IMC 76
   - Year of Accession: 1980
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 76
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC76
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 76
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 76

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Monteiro, W.R. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 2 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Resistant
 Togo - IRCC Togo, 1986
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Vascular Streak Dieback
70.00 % Infection
Note: 23 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Monteiro, W.R. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1998
Tolerant
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 111.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 29.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 23.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 21.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 38.1
Dry Weight: 0.90 g
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 45.0
Total Wet Weight: 56.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.9 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 43.0
Total Wet Weight: 64.5 g
Total Dry Weight: 69.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.08 g
Cotyledon Length: 24.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.5 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.3 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 172.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: angoleta
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 16.20 mm
Size: medium
Length: 177.5 mm
Breadth: 89.2 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 446.02 g
Placenta Weight: 14.54 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.98
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 128 mm
Length: 285.0 mm
Width: 96.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 137.6 °
Apical Angle: 67.5 °
Petiole Length: 14 mm
Pulvinus Length: 11 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.50 mm
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.84 mm
Ligule Width: 2.59 mm
Ovule Number: 54
Style Length: 1.99 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Length: 7.03 mm
Guide Line Length: 3.66 mm
Sepal Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.61 mm
Sepal Length: 7.65 mm
Ligule Length: 2.63 mm
Ligule Width: 2.56 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.01 mm
Ribbon Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.06 mm
Ovary Length: 1.33 mm
Ovule Number: 53
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.02 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.55 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin, anthocyanin absent (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: absent
 Reference
 Posnette, A.F., 1945
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance.. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Olatoye, S.T. & Esan, E.B. (1993) Recent innovation in cacao genetic resources conservation in Nigeria.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Conservation, Characterisation and Utilisation of Cocoa Genetic Resources in the 21st Century. CRU, UWI, Trinidad. pp. 281-291.
Adomako, B. & Adu-Ampomah, Y. (2000) Reflections on the yield of Upper Amazon cocoa hybrids in Ghana with reference to breeding for cocoa swollen shoot virus resistant varieties.. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin 52: 33-45.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Monteiro, W.R. & Silva, S.D.V.M. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Brazil, CEPEC.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad . In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Togo - IRCC Togo (1986) Collection de cacaoyers. Composition au 1er Janvier, 1986. IRCC Togo.. A.B. Eskes, IRCC, Montpellier, France. Personal Communication.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms.. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Posnette, A.F. (1945) Incompatibility in Amazon cacao.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 22: pp. 184-187.