Search Results

IMC 47    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: G VI 70, IQUITOS MIXED 47

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Iquitos, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 73.00 W, 3.50 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
GEBP 123 /A-M [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019
 Father to:
T 65 [POS]    Ghana - WACRI, No Date
 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 11 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774274   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629550
BioSample: SAMN09934470
SampleSource: Costa Rica, Tree_ID: Tc16547

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 849     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1998
• Accession: RUQ 849B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 203
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1978
• Accession: 203
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-47
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21975
   - Local Name: IMC-47
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC47
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: G VI 70
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC47
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1938
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668428     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1964
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35760     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 47
   - Year of Accession: 1993

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderate Resistance (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium (x2) and perithecium (x1) development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Resistant (Branch).
Note: Based on perithecium (x1) development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia.. Classed as Very Susceptible
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Phytophthora
Resistant, sp. P. megakarya (Leaf Disc Test).
Note: Mean of lesion score = 1.27.
 Paulin, D. et al., 2008
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 1 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 France - CIRAD-CP Montpellier, 1996
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Tolerant
 Lockwood, G., 1986
 Vascular Streak Dieback
62.08 % Infection
Note: 24 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
Susceptible
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 97.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 24.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 126.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 27.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 22.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 39.4
Dry Weight: 1.03 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 46.1
Total Dry Weight: 36.5 g
Dry Weight: 0.79 g
Note: 46 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 44.0
Total Wet Weight: 56.4 g
Total Dry Weight: 59.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.00 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.0 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.5 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.20 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 57.65 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.68 %
Note: 10 plants sampled
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 53.50 %
Testa: 6.10 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: angoleta
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 12.05 mm
Size: medium
Length: 176.7 mm
Breadth: 76.6 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 266.71 g
Placenta Weight: 7.31 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.30
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 849
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.44 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.08 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.19 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 68.85 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.61 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 292.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.88 g
Specific Leaf Area: 163.60 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 133 mm
Length: 272.0 mm
Width: 98.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.70
Basal Angle: 97.4 °
Apical Angle: 58.7 °
Petiole Length: 20 mm
Pulvinus Length: 2 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.98 mm
Ligule Width: 2.38 mm
Ovule Number: 48
Style Length: 1.94 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Posnette, A.F., 1945
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance.. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Frances Bekele (2019) Pedigree data for the GEBP clones supplied to ICQC,R (UK) by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Data supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2019.
Ghana - WACRI (No Date) WACRI Cocoa Varieties. Explanatory notes.. West African Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. A. Asare Nyako, Ghanaian Cocoa Board, Ghana. Personal Communication.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1991) Report of germplasm collection at Kerala Agricultural University.. R.V. Nair, Unpublished Report, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India, pp. 3.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Paulin, D., Ducamp, M. & Lachenaud, P. (2008) New sources of resistance to Phytophthora megakarya identified in wild cocoa tree populations of French Guiana.. Crop Protection. 27: pp 1143–1147.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad . In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
France - CIRAD-CP Montpellier (1996) List of clones from CIRAD quarantine at Montpellier of potential interest.. A.B. Eskes (CIRAD-CP, France) information for the Common Fund Project International Clone Trial.
Lockwood, G. (1986) Report on cocoa breeding & seed production.. Unpublished report for the Government of Ghana, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, CDC (UK.). pp. 23.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Posnette, A.F. (1945) Incompatibility in Amazon cacao.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 22: pp. 184-187.