Search Results

PA 107 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 107 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari III'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Maranon' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774216   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629608
BioSample: SAMN09934514
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: 18407
Run: SRR7774220   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629604
BioSample: SAMN09934512
SampleSource: Trinidad
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938225   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686898
BioSample: SAMN12500410
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000087
Run: SRR9938226   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686897
BioSample: SAMN12500410
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000087
Run: SRR9938259   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686864
BioSample: SAMN12500410
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000087
Run: SRR9938262   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686861
BioSample: SAMN12500410
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000087

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1728     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2015
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 545
   - Local Name: PA 107
   - Year of Accession: 1985
• Accession: 962
   - Local Name: PA 107
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-107
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21862
   - Local Name: PA-107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA107
   - Year of Accession: 1970
• Local Name: PA107
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 350
   - Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1994
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00446
   - Local Name: PA 107
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 107
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 37
   - Local Name: Pa107
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1943
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35771     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 107
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 107
   - Year of Accession: 1993

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderately Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium and perithecium development (x2).
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Phytophthora
Susceptible
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
 Vascular Streak Dieback
34.20 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: 24.4% of trees with <30% infected branches, 4.9% of trees with 30 to 70% infected branches, 4.9% of trees with >70% infected branches.. Sime Darby Plantations, Devon Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
54.00 % Infection
Note: 15 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 126.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 34.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 131.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 34.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 30.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 145.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 36.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 36.6
Dry Weight: 0.79 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 38.4
Total Dry Weight: 29.3 g
Dry Weight: 0.76 g
Note: 50 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 44.0
Total Wet Weight: 47.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.75 g
Cotyledon Length: 18.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.9 mm
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 40.8
Dry Weight: 0.68 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.90 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 60.22 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.06 %
Note: 13 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.70 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Length: 197.0 mm
Breadth: 71.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.20 mm
Ligule Width: 2.33 mm
Ovule Number: 44
Style Length: 2.20 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
 Reference
 Yamada, M.M. et al., 1996
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd.. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA).. Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.