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IMC 11    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 11

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Putative Half-Sibs:
Group P27   Zhang, D. et al., 2009
IMC 10 
IMC 105 
IMC 107 
IMC 12 
IMC 13 
IMC 16 
IMC 18 
IMC 23 
IMC 27 
IMC 30 
IMC 33 
IMC 38 
IMC 42 
IMC 44 
IMC 47 
IMC 53 
IMC 55 
IMC 58 
IMC 59 
IMC 6 
IMC 60 
IMC 61 
IMC 63 
IMC 65 
IMC 68 
IMC 71 
IMC 76 
IMC 77 
IMC 78 
IMC 85 
IMC 9 
IMC 96 
IMC 98 

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 8     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 11
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 970
   - Local Name: IMC 11
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-11
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21892
   - Local Name: IMC-11
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 11
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 1997   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 11
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 11
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 11
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 11
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668470     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 11
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35759     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 11
   - Year of Accession: 2002

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 27.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 24.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 48.0
Total Wet Weight: 49.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.75 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 55.0
Total Dry Weight: 47.3 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.75 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.4 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 165.0 mm
Breadth: 78.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 9.50 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.88 mm
Ligule Width: 2.38 mm
Ovule Number: 55
Style Length: 2.17 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.15 mm
Ligule Width: 2.51 mm
Ovule Number: 55
Style Length: 2.33 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Zhang, D., Boccara, M., Motilal, L., Mischke S., Johnson, E.S., Butler, D.R., Bailey, B. & Meinhardt, L. (2009) Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Upper Amazon using microsatellite DNA markers.. Tree Genetics & Genomes. doi:10.1007/s11295-009-0212-2
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.