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TSA 654    Theobroma cacao

 Shripat, C. (1996)
The Cocoa Breeding Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad.. Presented at the International Workshop on The Utilisation of Genetic Resources of the ICGT, June, 1996. Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad.

Derivation: Trinidad Selected Amazons.
Collected by Cocoa Board.

Notes:  Selections from populations of Amazons.

Shripat, 1996a [SHR96A]. Each Trinidad clone was labelled with a code composed of certain letters as a prefix (TS, TSA, TSH, TSAN, TSHN) followed by a number which runs consecutively from 500 upwards regardless of the letters. Thus, there are no two new clones with the same number.

(see also Bartley, 1997c [BAR97C] ).
 

Synonyms: TSH 654

 NOTES

Selections from populations of Amazons. Shripat, 1996a [SHR96A]. Each Trinidad clone was labelled with a code composed of certain letters as a prefix (TS, TSA, TSH, TSAN, TSHN) followed by a number which runs consecutively from 500 upwards regardless of the letters. Thus, there are no two new clones with the same number. (see also Bartley, 1997c [BAR97C] ).

 RECOMMENDED PLANTING MATERIAL    Disclaimer

 Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei et al., 2011
Recommended for planting in:
Brazil (Bahia)
Year: 1998-2014
 Reference
 Yamada, Milton Macoto et al., 2010
Recommended for planting in:
Brazil (Bahia)
Year: 1990
 Reference

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
SCA 6  x IMC 67    Trinidad - Las Hermanas, No Date
SCA 6  x IMC 67    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
 Father to:
TSA 1063    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1064    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1065    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1066    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1067    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1082    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1085    Freeman, W.E., No Date

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774248   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629576
BioSample: SAMN09934570
SampleSource: Costa Rica, Tree_ID: 17457

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1029     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: TSA 654
   - Year of Accession: 2000
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 281
   - Local Name: TSA 654
   - Year of Accession: 1980
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: TSA 654
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: TSA 654 Quadra 8
   - Local Name: TSA 654
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: TSA-654
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: TSA 654
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22089
   - Local Name: TSA-654
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: TSH 654

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
Resistant
 Freeman, W.E., No Date
Resistant
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
 Witches Broom
Intermediate
 Fonseca, S.E.A & Albuquerque, P.S.B. de, 1996
Resistant (Seedling).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Resistant
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977

 BEAN

 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 94 %
Colour Light Purple: 6 %
Shape: flat/round
Length: 23.2 mm
Width: 11.3 mm
Thickness: 8.3 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.32 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 94 %
Colour Light Purple: 6 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.32 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.3 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: angoleta
Husk Thickness: 9.7 mm
Length: 165.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Hardness: very soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.23
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: angoleta
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 9.7 mm
Length: 165.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.17
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1029
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.09 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.05 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.81 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 96.48 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 5.17 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 252.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.52 g
Specific Leaf Area: 166.30 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: green
 Reference

 LEAF

 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 3.13
Basal Angle: 171.0 °
Apical Angle: 83.0 °
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 3.13
Basal Angle: 171.0 °
Apical Angle: 83.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.30 mm
Sepal Length: 6.93 mm
Ligule Width: 2.61 mm
Ovule Number: 49
Style Length: 2.18 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.30 mm
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Width: 2.80 mm
Sepal Length: 8.30 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 2.84
Ligule Length: 2.50 mm
Ligule Width: 3.00 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 0.82
Ribbon Length: 3.60 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.30 mm
Ovary Length: 1.90 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.39
Ovule Number: 60
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 2.60 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.60 mm
Pedicel Length: 19.40 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyani, slight anthocyani (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: white
Ligule Colour: green
Stamen Colour: negligible anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.30 mm
Sepal Colour: white
Sepal Width: 2.80 mm
Sepal Length: 8.30 mm
Ligule Length: 2.50 mm
Ligule Width: 3.00 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.60 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.30 mm
Ovary Length: 1.90 mm
Ovule Number: 60
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 2.60 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.60 mm
Pedicel Length: 19.40 mm
Pedicel Colour: green, green (ab), white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference

Shripat, C. (1996) The Cocoa Breeding Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad.. Presented at the International Workshop on The Utilisation of Genetic Resources of the ICGT, June, 1996. Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad.
Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei, Wilson Reis Monteiro, José Luis Pires, Didier Clement, Milton Macoto Yamada & Karina Peres Gramacho (2011) Cacao Breeding in Bahia, Brazil - Strategies and Results. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 11: 73–81
Yamada, Milton Macoto, Fábio Gelape Faleiro, Brena Faria Santos & Mônica Menezes Passinho (2010) RELAÇÃO ENTRE INCOMPATIBILIDADE E VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA COM BASE EM MARCADORES RAPD EM CLONES DE CACAUEIRO [Relationship between Incompatibility and Genetic Variability Based on RAPD Markers in Cacao Clones]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 22 (1): 11–16
Trinidad - Las Hermanas (No Date) Key to labelling codes.. Unpublished report, Las Hermanas Experiment Station, Trinidad. p.1.
Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Freeman, W.E. (No Date) Cited by C. Gonsalves in Cocoa Research Unit Newsletter, No. 3, 1996.
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Fonseca, S.E.A & Albuquerque, P.S.B. de (1996) Avaliacao de clones de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira em relaçao a incidencia de vassoura-de bruxa.. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador, Brazil, 1996. Cocoa Producers' Alliance.
Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M. (1997) Evaluating resistance/tolerance to Witches' Broom disease in Bahia, Brazil.. Final Report to ACRI. CEPLAC/CEPEC, February, 1997. pp. 56. Data supplied to ICGD by Luz & Silva.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, November 2016.