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ICS 43    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: I S C 43

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
NIC  x Unknown   Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
 Mother to:
SI 43 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
THA 2    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
 Father to:
AHT 8    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
SI 43 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774313   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629511
BioSample: SAMN09934460
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: 18331

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 144     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: ICS 43
   - Year of Accession: 1988
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 948
   - Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS-43
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21839
   - Local Name: ICS-43
   - Year of Accession: 2002
• Accession: 21989
   - Local Name: ICS-43 Brasil
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS43
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00460
   - Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668469     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 43
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35758     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 43
   - Year of Accession: 2001
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 43

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderately Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on perithecium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
 Frosty Pod Rot
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
19.00 % Infection (Field reaction).
Note: Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
22.00 % Infection (Field reaction).
Note: Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Resistant, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 1.0 and Internal Severety = 1.2
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 9mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, A.D. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, 80.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Blaha, G. & Lotode, R., 1976
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Susceptible, 1.10 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (5 month old detached pod (reaction)).
Note: Described as highly susceptible. Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Susceptible, 10.20 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (5 month old detached pod (reaction)).
Note: Described as highly susceptible. Percentage infection is the natural incidence of the disease observed in the field over 4 to 5 years.
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977

 YIELD

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Pod Index: 26.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
Yield: 505 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Pod Index: 18.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
Yield: 1167 kg ha-1 yr-1
Note: tree number 30
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 16.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 93.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: low - medium
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 18.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Number: 32.0
Length: 23.0 mm
Width: 9.0 mm
Thickness: 12.0 mm
Dry Weight: 1.23 g
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Acc: tree number 30
Number: 38.0
Length: 24.0 mm
Width: 10.0 mm
Thickness: 13.0 mm
Dry Weight: 1.60 g
Note: tree number 30
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 38.0
Total Wet Weight: 92.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.64 g
Cotyledon Length: 27.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 15.5 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Absent
Colour Light Purple: Present
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 33.1
Maximum Number: 39
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.73 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.07 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.4 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 39.0
Total Wet Weight: 82.3 g
Total Dry Weight: 87.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.35 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.5 mm
Cotyledon Width: 14.9 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.0 mm
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Size: large
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Butterfat Content: 54.00 %
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Butterfat Content: 55.00 %
Note: tree number 30
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: sharp
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 15 mm
Length: 181.0 mm
Breadth: 83.0 mm
Colour: red
Weight: 474.0 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.18
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Acc: tree number 30
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: sharp
Rugosity: smooth
Husk Thickness: 21 mm
Length: 195.0 mm
Breadth: 102.0 mm
Colour: red
Weight: 827.0 g
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.91
Note: tree number 30
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 194.0 mm
Breadth: 83.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 8.85 mm (10.9 - 6.8)
Length: 177.0 mm
Breadth: 77.0 mm
Colour: moderate / slight - moderate anthocyanin (ridge/furrow)
Weight: 505.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 4
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.29
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.71
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: cundeamor
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 11.00 mm
Size: large
Length: 181.3 mm
Breadth: 79.9 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 296.97 g
Placenta Weight: 5.01 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.26
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: red
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 144
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.78 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.25 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 49.87 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.42 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 239.30 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.71 g
Specific Leaf Area: 140.40 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: reddish brown
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 143 mm
Length: 305.0 mm
Width: 97.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.20
Basal Angle: 108.9 °
Apical Angle: 80.5 °
Petiole Length: 24 mm
Pulvinus Length: 17 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W., 2006
Cross: ICS 43 x UF 712 
Acc: tree number 30
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.01 mm
Ligule Width: 2.17 mm
Ovule Number: 34
Style Length: 1.84 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.30 mm
Sepal Length: 8.76 mm
Ligule Length: 8.24 mm
Ligule Width: 2.92 mm
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Ovary Width: 0.96 mm
Ovary Length: 1.29 mm
Style Length: 2.07 mm
Staminode Length: 7.54 mm
Pedicel Colour: pink
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Length: 6.53 mm
Guide Line Length: 3.87 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.28 mm
Sepal Length: 8.06 mm
Ligule Length: 3.46 mm
Ligule Width: 2.36 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.91 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.02 mm
Ovary Length: 1.36 mm
Ovule Number: 37
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 1.87 mm
Pedicel Length: 17.54 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), moderate anthocyanin (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference
 KKO, 1993
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - CRU (2002) ICG,T accessions database, reply to queries regarding names new to ICGD.. Dr. David Butler, ICG,T Trinidad. Personal Communication. 12 September 2002.
Nya Ngatchou, J. (1978) Etat d'avancement des travaux de génétique et d'amelioration du cacaoyer au Cameroun.. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Conference, Douala, Cameroun, 1979. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 507-511.
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Gabon - SOCAGAB (1992) Liste des clones de la collection du C.M.C.E. de Minkong (Oyem, Gabon).. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD, Kourou, Guyane. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Arciniegas, A. & Phillips-Mora, W. (2006) Caracterización de Genotipos Superiores de Cacao Seleccionados por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético del CATIE por Su Rendimiento Y/O Resistencia a Moniliasis. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica (2006). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Iwaro, A.D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1998) Cacao resistance to Phytophthora: Effect of pathogen species, inoculation depths and pod maturity.. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104: pp.11-15
Blaha, G. & Lotode, R. (1976) Un critere primordial de selection du cacaoyer au Cameroun: la resistance a la pourriture brune des cabossees ( Phytophthora palmivora ).. Cafe, Cacao, The 20(2): pp. 97-116.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
KKO (1993) Information from the KKO cocoa germplasm database.. Information supplied on computer diskette by C. Cilas, CIRAD-CP, France.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.