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ICS 46    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: I S C 46

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
GEBP 303 /B-M [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019
SI 46 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
 Father to:
AHT 19    Nya Ngatchou, J., 1978
SI 46 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 938     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: ICS 46
   - Year of Accession: 1999
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
   - Year of Accession: 1957
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
   - Year of Accession: 1954
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 188
   - Local Name: ICS-46
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 46

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Moderate Resistance, 90.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Blaha, G. & Lotode, R., 1976
Moderately Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Witches Broom
Susceptible (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Tolerant (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994

 PESTS

 Mirids
Resistant
 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 66.6 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 19.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 22.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Productivity: low
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 34.2
Total Dry Weight: 51.6 g
Dry Weight: 1.50 g
Note: 27 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 32.0
Total Wet Weight: 68.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.38 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 14.7 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 36.4
Dry Weight: 1.58 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 54.90 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 56.32 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.03 %
Note: 7 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.80 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: oblate
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Length: 171.0 mm
Breadth: 84.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Colour: slight / absent anthocyanin (ridge/furrow)
Pods Per Tree: 3
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: calabacillo
Colour: green
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 165.7 mm
Breadth: 82.8 mm
Weight: 498.5 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.00
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: olive yellow
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 139 mm
Length: 293.0 mm
Width: 102.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.40
Basal Angle: 110.8 °
Apical Angle: 86.6 °
Petiole Length: 28 mm
Pulvinus Length: 21 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 8.50 mm
Ligule Width: 2.59 mm
Ovule Number: 38
Style Length: 1.85 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Frances Bekele (2019) Pedigree data for the GEBP clones supplied to ICQC,R (UK) by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Data supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2019.
Trinidad - CRU (2002) ICG,T accessions database, reply to queries regarding names new to ICGD.. Dr. David Butler, ICG,T Trinidad. Personal Communication. 12 September 2002.
Nya Ngatchou, J. (1978) Etat d'avancement des travaux de génétique et d'amelioration du cacaoyer au Cameroun.. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Conference, Douala, Cameroun, 1979. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 507-511.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Gabon - SOCAGAB (1992) Liste des clones de la collection du C.M.C.E. de Minkong (Oyem, Gabon).. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD, Kourou, Guyane. Personal Communication.
Chesney, P.E. (2008) Guyana accessions.. Personal communication, September 2008.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Blaha, G. & Lotode, R. (1976) Un critere primordial de selection du cacaoyer au Cameroun: la resistance a la pourriture brune des cabossees ( Phytophthora palmivora ).. Cafe, Cacao, The 20(2): pp. 97-116.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Trinidad - CRU (1994) Cocoa Research Unit. Report for 1994.. The University of the West Indies.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.