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RB 46 [BRA]    Theobroma cacao

 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965)
Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira.. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.

Derivation: Rio Branco.
Collected by Vello.
Location: Rio Branco, Acre, BRA.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Productivity - high. Flowers - generally have a "thickish" appearance with intensely and brilliantly coloured stamens such that the whole flower appears red. Fruits- small, Amelonado shaped, generally with thick husks. Seeds - small with dark cotyledons.

Notes:  Vello & Medeiros, 1965 [VEL65A] 1965 Brazilian-International expedition.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Rio Branco is the name of several rivers and the name of a town in Acre.

Bartley 1997a, [BAR97A] The original Belem planting of RB clones comprised a mixture of types. This may account for the mixtures of genotypes in the CEPEC and CATIE collections with regard to RB 48 and RB 49. Any material distributed from CATIE should be identified as such to avoid confusion with clones from the primary source, which should be considered to be the correctly identified genotypes.
 

 NOTES

Vello & Medeiros, 1965 [VEL65A] 1965 Brazilian-International expedition. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Rio Branco is the name of several rivers and the name of a town in Acre. Bartley 1997a, [BAR97A] The original Belem planting of RB clones comprised a mixture of types. This may account for the mixtures of genotypes in the CEPEC and CATIE collections with regard to RB 48 and RB 49. Any material distributed from CATIE should be identified as such to avoid confusion with clones from the primary source, which should be considered to be the correctly identified genotypes.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Branco, Acre, Brazil (cocoa plantation)
Date: 11 July 1965
Coordinates: 67.49 W, 9.59 S
Material collected: Budwood
Notes: Sena-Madureina Road, Colonia Galino Bezouro
Expedition Code: 65BR
   Soria, V.J., 1965
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
   Soria, V.J., 1970
   Almeida, C.M.V.C. de et al., 1995
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1965

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Purus' Population
Subgroup: 'Acre R'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 134     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: RB 46 [BRA]
   - Year of Accession: 1988
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 140
   - Local Name: RB 46
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 113
   - Local Name: RB 46 [BRA]
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10452
   - Local Name: RB-46
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: RB 46
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 144
   - Local Name: RB-46
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00679
   - Local Name: RB 46 (BRA)
List received in 1995   Reference
• Local Name: RB 46 [BRA]
   - Year of Accession: 1987

 DISEASE

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 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.2 and Internal Severety = 5.0
 Phillips, W., 1997
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.2 and Internal Severety = 5.0
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Moderate Resistance, 37.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe and not wounded
 Lopez-Baez, O. et al., 1996
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora
Note: Artificial reaction to black pod (Paper Disc Method). Rated as Highly Resistant
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
 Witches Broom
Absent (Expedition data).
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 36.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 107.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: medium - high
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 33.0
Total Wet Weight: 37.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.83 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.5 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 31.4
Maximum Number: 51
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.25 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.0 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.8 mm
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Colour: light purple
Shape: oval
Size: medium
Note: expedition data
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.30 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 140.0 mm
Breadth: 72.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 7.65 mm (9.9 - 5.4)
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 73.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 312.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 6
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.17
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.72
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Shape: amelonado
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: medium
Size: medium
Colour: green
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 134
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.07 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.10 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.11 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 52.16 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.86 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 6
Leaf Area: 270.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.08 g
Specific Leaf Area: 131.90 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 5.99 mm
Ligule Width: 1.91 mm
Ovule Number: 43
Style Length: 1.71 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.04 mm
Sepal Length: 6.32 mm
Ligule Length: 6.18 mm
Ligule Width: 2.29 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.03 mm
Ovary Length: 1.43 mm
Style Length: 1.85 mm
Staminode Length: 6.81 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Ligule Colour: yellow
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: expedition data
 Reference

Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965) Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira.. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.
Soria, V.J. (1965) Notes on the cocoas collected by the Brazilian-International expedition to some areas of the Brazilian Amazon Basin.. Cacao (Costa Rica) 10: pp. 10-13.
Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1966) Expedicao botanica a Amazonia Brasileira.. Communicado ao Pessoal Technico No. 20. Co-ordenacao Technica. CEPLAC/CEPEC, Brazil, pp. 13.
Soria, V.J. (1970) The latest cocoa expeditions to the Amazon Basin.. Cacao (Costa Rica) 15: pp. 5-15.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Machado, P.F.R., de, Barriga, J.P. & Silva, F.C.O. da. (1995) Coleta da cacau (Theobroma cacao) da amazonia brasileira: uma abordagem historica e analitica.. CEPLAC, SRAO, Porto Velho, RO., Brasil. pp. 92.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Lopez-Baez, O., Cueto-Moreno, J. & Fraire-Vazquez, G. (1995) Progressos en el mejoramiento genetico del cacao Theobroma cacao L. en Mexico.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding Strategies, Kuala Lumpur, 1994. INGENIC, Reading, U.K. pp. 18-25.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Lopez-Baez, O., Fraire, V.G. & Cueto, M.J. (1996) Mejoramiento genetico para la resistencia a Phytophthora en Mexico.. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease Resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement, INGENIC, Salvador, 24th-26th September, 1996. pp.51-55.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.