Search Results

PA 13 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 13 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Rio Maranon, Parinari, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 74.60 W, 4.60 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari III'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Maranon' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774235   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629589
BioSample: SAMN09934517
SampleSource: gDNA Miami, Tree_ID: Tc18218
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938255   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686868
BioSample: SAMN12500406
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000094
Run: SRR9938291   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686832
BioSample: SAMN12500406
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000094
Run: SRR9938292   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686831
BioSample: SAMN12500406
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000094
Run: SRR9938293   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686830
BioSample: SAMN12500406
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000094

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1575     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 186
   - Local Name: PA 13
   - Year of Accession: 1978
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 127
   - Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10387
   - Local Name: PA-13
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 13
• Local Name: PA - 13 - INOC
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 13
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 13
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
List received in 1995   Reference
• Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1987
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: TARS 16761     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 13 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1939

 DISEASE

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 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 92.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.8 and Internal Severety = 4.0
 Phillips, W., 1996
Susceptible, 92.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.8 and Internal Severety = 4.0
 Phillips, W., 1997
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
14.11 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = EF
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Resistant, 41.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe and not wounded
 Lopez-Baez, O. et al., 1996
 Vascular Streak Dieback
13.60 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: 9.2% of trees with <30% infected branches, 4.4% of trees with 30 to 70% infected branches, 0.0% of trees with >70% infected branches.. Sime Darby Plantations, Devon Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
80.31 % Infection
Note: 16 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
Resistant
 Sharma, M., 1992
Tolerant
 Sharma, M., 1992
 Witches Broom
Tolerant
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 116.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 27.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 114.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 32.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 31.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 95.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: medium
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 113.8 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 38.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Yield: 3348 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 41.6
Dry Weight: 0.86 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 35.0
Total Dry Weight: 30.6 g
Dry Weight: 0.87 g
Note: 50 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 42.0
Total Wet Weight: 47.1 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.76 g
Cotyledon Length: 19.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.5 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 32.8
Maximum Number: 48
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.63 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.05 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.0 mm
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 34.1
Dry Weight: 0.87 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 60.20 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 62.71 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 57.62 %
Note: 13 plants sampled
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Length: 181.0 mm
Breadth: 74.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: intense
Husk Thickness: 9.9 mm (12.4 - 7.4)
Length: 190.0 mm
Breadth: 84.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 550.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 5
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.26
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.61
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1575
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.44 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.22 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 46.17 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.47 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 6
Leaf Area: 280.20 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.78 g
Specific Leaf Area: 159.20 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: brownish orange
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 119 mm
Length: 247.0 mm
Width: 76.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.30
Basal Angle: 108.0 °
Apical Angle: 53.0 °
Petiole Length: 16 mm
Pulvinus Length: 13 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 8.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.39 mm
Ligule Width: 2.23 mm
Ovule Number: 38
Style Length: 2.24 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.61 mm
Sepal Length: 8.88 mm
Ligule Length: 7.00 mm
Ligule Width: 2.18 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.46 mm
Style Length: 2.01 mm
Staminode Length: 7.78 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Bud Colour: intense anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Length: 6.35 mm
Guide Line Length: 3.47 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.34 mm
Sepal Length: 7.23 mm
Ligule Length: 2.11 mm
Ligule Width: 2.13 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.35 mm
Ribbon Colour: anthocyanin absent
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.01 mm
Ovary Length: 1.25 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Pedicel Length: 15.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance.. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Lopez-Baez, O., Cueto-Moreno, J. & Fraire-Vazquez, G. (1995) Progressos en el mejoramiento genetico del cacao Theobroma cacao L. en Mexico.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding Strategies, Kuala Lumpur, 1994. INGENIC, Reading, U.K. pp. 18-25.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Sounigo, O., N'Goran, J., Coulibaly, N., Clement, D. & Lachenaud, P. (1995) Evaluation de clones de cacaoyers pour la productivite, la resistance aux mirides et la resistance a la pourriture des cabosses.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 375-381.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database.. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Lopez-Baez, O., Fraire, V.G. & Cueto, M.J. (1996) Mejoramiento genetico para la resistencia a Phytophthora en Mexico.. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease Resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement, INGENIC, Salvador, 24th-26th September, 1996. pp.51-55.
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Sharma, M. (1992) The performance of imported F0 clones at United Plantations Bhd.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms.. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies