Search Results

PA 279 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 279 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Maranon' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938221   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686902
BioSample: SAMN12500407
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000105
Run: SRR9938222   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686901
BioSample: SAMN12500407
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000105
Run: SRR9938254   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686869
BioSample: SAMN12500407
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000105
Run: SRR9938256   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686867
BioSample: SAMN12500407
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000105

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1119     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 279 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2001
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21866
   - Local Name: PA-279 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA279
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 279 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 279 [PER]

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 3 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 31.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 29.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 45.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.87 g
Cotyledon Length: 19.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.8 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 49.2 g
Total Dry Weight: 58.9 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.95 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.0 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Length: 190.0 mm
Breadth: 73.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 1.6 MPa ? 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: cundeamor
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Husk Thickness: 11.40 mm
Size: medium
Length: 193.2 mm
Breadth: 76.1 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 275.48 g
Placenta Weight: 11.52 g
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.53
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.98 mm
Ligule Width: 2.65 mm
Ovule Number: 37
Style Length: 2.78 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.93 mm
Ligule Width: 2.61 mm
Ovule Number: 36
Style Length: 2.77 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad . In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies