Search Results

PA 120 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: P 120 [POS], PARINARI 120 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774217   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629607
BioSample: SAMN09934515
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: Tc18221

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 852     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
• Accession: RUQ 852B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1292
   - Local Name: PA 120
• Accession: 546
   - Local Name: PA 120
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21863
   - Local Name: PA-120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00458
   - Local Name: PA 120
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 120
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: P 120 [POS]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1943
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668477     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35772     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 120
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 120 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1969

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderately Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on perithecium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia.. Classed as Very Susceptible based on perithecia production.
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Phytophthora
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 3 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003

 PESTS

 Mirids
Resistant
 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 34.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 35.0
Total Wet Weight: 38.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.82 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 6.50 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 152.0 mm
Breadth: 74.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 852
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 2.93 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.05 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.68 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 71.74 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.39 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 303.30 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.89 g
Specific Leaf Area: 162.70 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 CADMIUM

 Lewis, Caleb et al., 2018
Tissue: leaf
Mean Cadmium Content: 0.95 %
Accumulation: low
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.50 mm
Ligule Width: 2.28 mm
Ovule Number: 34
Style Length: 2.13 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Yamada, M.M. et al., 1996
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Lewis, Caleb, Adrian M. Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie & Pathmanathan Umaharan (2018) Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.. Science of the Total Environment 640–641, 696–703
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA).. Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.