Search Results

PA 30 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 30 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
AX 365    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 368    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
CEPEC 1001    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
PA 30 /S-1 [PER]    Bartley, B.G.D., 1998
 Father to:
CEPEC 1001    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
HAA 4 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 5 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 6 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
HAA 8 [VEN]    Reyes, H.E. et al., 1973
PA 121 /S-1 [PER]    Bartley, B.G.D., 1998
PA 30 /S-1 [PER]    Bartley, B.G.D., 1998

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari II'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1635     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 189
   - Local Name: PA 30
   - Year of Accession: 1980
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 453
   - Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22302
   - Local Name: PA-30
   - Year of Accession: 2012
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 30
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00605
   - Local Name: PA30
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 30
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 30 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1969

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (abaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and punch inoculated
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (adaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 2 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Tolerant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
Resistant, sp. P. capsici (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. citrophthora
Note: Average score = 2.3.
 Lopez, U.V. et al., 2006
Resistant, sp. P. citrophthora (Pod).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. et al., 1995

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 27.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 54.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.01 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.9 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.30 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1635
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.24 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.13 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.53 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 43.75 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.50 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 291.70 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.60 g
Specific Leaf Area: 187.40 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.50 mm
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.19 mm
Ligule Width: 2.55 mm
Ovule Number: 41
Style Length: 1.81 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Yamada, M. et al., 1982
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of AX Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp 18.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1998) Comments made by Dr. Bartley during his visit to Reading (19th - 31st July 1998). B.G.D. Bartley. Personal Communications.
Reyes, H.E., Perez, A.Z., Reyes, L.C. de & Wagner O., M. de J. (1973) Catalogo de cultivares de cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.).. Estacion Experimental de Caucagua, Caucagua, Venezuela. pp. 131.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd.. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Iwaro, D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1997) Foliar resistance to Phytophthora palmivora as an indicator of pod resistance in Theobroma cacao.. Plant Disease 81(6): pp. 619-624
Iwaro, D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1997) Phytophthora resistance in cacao (Theobroma cacao): Influence of pod morphological characteristics.. Plant Pathology 46: pp. 557-565
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Luz, E.D.M.N., Silva, S.D.V.M., Yamada, M.M., Lopes, U.V., Braga, M.C.T. & Brugnerotto, M.I.B. (1995) Cacao cultivars selected for resistance to Phytophthora capsici, P. palmivora and P. citrophthora in Bahia, Brazil.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 97-98.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Lopez, U.V., Paim, M., Luz, E.D.N., Silva, S.D.V.M., Gramacho, K.P. and Pires, J.L. (2006) Resistance of Cacao Farmer Selections to Phytophthora citrophthora in Brazil.. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Cocoa Research Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica (2006). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Yamada, M., Bartley, B.G.D., Castro, G.C.T.de, & Melo, G.R.P. (1982) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. I. Relacioes fenotipicas na familia PA (Parinari).. Revista Theobroma 12 (3): 163-167.