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POUND 12 /A    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1943)
Cacao and witches' broom disease. Report on a recent visit to the Amazon territory of Peru, September 1942-February 1943.. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 73-91.

Derivation: POUND (collector).
Collected by Pound.

Notes:  Chalmers, 1968 [CHA68A] Trees were marked and initial collections made in 1968. Chalmers revisited the area in 1970 (Chalmers, 1970a [CHA70A]), recollecting from some trees and making new collections from newly marked trees. Further collections were made in 1972 (Chalmers, 1972b [CHA72B]).
 

Synonyms: PERU 12 /A [POU], P 12 /A [POU]

 NOTES

Chalmers, 1968 [CHA68A] Trees were marked and initial collections made in 1968. Chalmers revisited the area in 1970 (Chalmers, 1970a [CHA70A]), recollecting from some trees and making new collections from newly marked trees. Further collections were made in 1972 (Chalmers, 1972b [CHA72B]).

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1458     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: POUND 12/A [POU]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22307
   - Local Name: Pound-12/A
   - Year of Accession: 2012
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: P - 12 - A
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: POUND12/A
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: POUND 12/A [POU]

 DISEASE

 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 32.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 49.0
Total Wet Weight: 46.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.62 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.1 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 2.70 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 147.0 mm
Breadth: 72.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1458
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.60 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.08 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 41.15 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.41 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 7
Leaf Area: 337.50 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.66 g
Specific Leaf Area: 128.50 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 120 mm
Length: 252.0 mm
Width: 90.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 152.1 °
Apical Angle: 80.2 °
Petiole Length: 20 mm
Pulvinus Length: 13 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.00 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.41 mm
Ligule Width: 2.42 mm
Ovule Number: 50
Style Length: 2.70 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1943) Cacao and witches' broom disease. Report on a recent visit to the Amazon territory of Peru, September 1942-February 1943.. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 73-91.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.