Search Results

PA 4 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 4 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: Rio Maranon, Parinari, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 74.60 W, 4.60 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1058     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2000
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 540
   - Local Name: PA 4
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2015   Reference
• Accession: PA 4 Quadra 5
   - Local Name: PA 4
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21191
   - Local Name: PA-4
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 191
   - Local Name: PA-4
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 4
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668433     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 4 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1967

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
18.40 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = D
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Moderately Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
 Kebe, 1999
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora
Note: Artificial reaction to black pod (Paper Disc Method). Rated as Highly Resistant
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Tolerant
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 99.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 25.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 24.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Yield: 3487 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 38.4
Dry Weight: 1.01 g
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 42.0
Total Wet Weight: 58.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.99 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.5 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.70 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 53.30 %
Testa: 5.60 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: mammillate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 171.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1058
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.77 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.06 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.05 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 66.18 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.02 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 213.40 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.63 g
Specific Leaf Area: 136.20 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.07 mm
Ligule Width: 2.32 mm
Ovule Number: 43
Style Length: 2.08 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Posnette, A.F., 1945
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Yamada, M.M. et al., 1996
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance.. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de, Francisco Antônio Neto, Acácio de Paula, Silva, José Raymundo Pires Medeiros & Antonio de Almeida Lima (2015) RECURSOS GENÉTICOS DE CACAUEIRO EM RONDÔNIA: RETROSPECTIVA HISTÓRICA, ORIGEM E INVENTÁRIO [Genetic Resources of Cacao in Rondônia: Historical Overview, Origin and Inventory]. Agrotrópica (Itabuna) 27 (2): 93–124
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Sounigo, O., N'Goran, J., Coulibaly, N., Clement, D. & Lachenaud, P. (1995) Evaluation de clones de cacaoyers pour la productivite, la resistance aux mirides et la resistance a la pourriture des cabosses.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 375-381.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database.. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Kebe (1999) Data from Cote d'Ivoire on black pod resistance.. Kebe, report on CAOBISCO project. Forwarded to ICGD by Dr. A.B.Eskes, IPGRI.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms.. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Posnette, A.F. (1945) Incompatibility in Amazon cacao.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 22: pp. 184-187.
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA).. Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.