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RB 49 [BRA]    Theobroma cacao

 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965)
Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.

Derivation: Rio Branco.
Collected by Vello.
Location: Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Productivity - high. Flowers - generally have a "thickish" appearance with intensely and brilliantly coloured stamens such that the whole flower appears red. Fruits- small, Amelonado shaped, generally with thick husks. Seeds - small with dark cotyledons.

Notes:  Vello & Medeiros, 1965 [VEL65A] 1965 Brazilian-International expedition.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Rio Branco is the name of several rivers and the name of a town in Acre.

Bartley 1997a, [BAR97A] The original Belem planting of RB clones comprised a mixture of types. This may account for the mixtures of genotypes in the CEPEC and CATIE collections with regard to RB 48 and RB 49. Any material distributed from CATIE should be identified as such to avoid confusion with clones from the primary source, which should be considered to be the correctly identified genotypes.
 

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Branco, Acre, Brazil (cocoa plantation)
Date: 11 July 1965
Coordinates: 67.49 W, 9.59 S
Material collected: Budwood
Notes: Colonia Galino Bezouro
Expedition Code: 65BR
   Soria, V.J., 1965
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
   Soria, V.J., 1970
   Almeida, C.M.V.C. de et al., 1995
   Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1965

 GENOME/TRANSCRIPTOME DATA LINKS

 Xavier Argout et al., 2023
 Reference
BioProject: PRJNA880462   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Library Source: Genomic
 
Run: SRR21562151   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX17564428
BioSample: SAMN30841513
SampleName: RB_49

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 143
   - Local Name: RB 49
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 116
   - Local Name: RB 49 [BRA]
   - Year of Accession: 1984
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10454
   - Local Name: RB-49
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: RB49
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 146
   - Local Name: RB-49
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00681
   - Local Name: RB 49 (BRA)

 DISEASE

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 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.6 and Internal Severety = 4.6
 Phillips, W., 1997
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.6 and Internal Severety = 4.6
 Phillips, W., 1996
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
 Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus
Moderate Resistance
 Lockwood, G., 1986
 Witches Broom
Present (Expedition data).
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966

 YIELD

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 37.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Productivity: very low
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Productivity: high
Note: expedition data
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 41.0
Total Wet Weight: 41.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.66 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.1 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.40 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 139.0 mm
Breadth: 74.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: smooth
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Pods Per Tree: 1
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Shape: amelonado
Husk Thickness: thin
Size: small
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 136
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 3.43 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.06 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.68 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 59.82 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 5.31 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 242.90 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.92 g
Specific Leaf Area: 127.10 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.74 mm
Ligule Width: 2.57 mm
Ovule Number: 48
Style Length: 1.86 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G., 1966
Ligule Colour: yellow
Ligule Shape: truncated rhomboid
Note: expedition data
 Reference

Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1965) Expedicao botanica a Amazonica brasileira. Cacau Atualidades (Brasil) 2: pp. 47-51.
Soria, V.J. (1965) Notes on the cocoas collected by the Brazilian-International expedition to some areas of the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Cacao (Costa Rica) 10: pp. 10-13.
Vello, F. & Medeiros, A.G. (1966) Expedicao botanica a Amazonia Brasileira. Communicado ao Pessoal Technico No. 20. Co-ordenacao Technica. CEPLAC/CEPEC, Brazil, pp. 13.
Soria, V.J. (1970) The latest cocoa expeditions to the Amazon Basin. Cacao (Costa Rica) 15: pp. 5-15.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Machado, P.F.R., de, Barriga, J.P. & Silva, F.C.O. da. (1995) Coleta da cacau (Theobroma cacao) da amazonia brasileira: uma abordagem historica e analitica. CEPLAC, SRAO, Porto Velho, RO., Brasil. pp. 92.
Xavier Argout, Gaetan Droc, Olivier Fouet, Mathieu Rouard, Karine Labadie, Bénédicte Rhoné, Gaston Rey Loor & Claire Lanaud (2023) Pangenomic exploration of Theobroma cacao: New Insights into Gene Content Diversity and Selection During Domestication. bioRxiv preprint
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Lockwood, G. (1986) Report on cocoa breeding & seed production. Unpublished report for the Government of Ghana, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, CDC (UK.). pp. 23.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.