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PA 303 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: PARINARI 303 [PER]


 Susilo, Agung W, 2015
Recommended seed parent in:
Indonesia (North Sumatera)
Seed Garden / Source: PT London Sumatera
Other Seed Garden Parents: PA 300 [PER]   |  PA 121 [PER]   |  GC 29 [LON]   |  UF 667   |  UF 713   |  BLC4   |  BL621   |  BL693 
Recommended by: Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), Indonesia


 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari I'   Reference


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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1372     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2003
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1311
   - Local Name: PA 303
• Accession: 418
   - Local Name: PA 303
   - Year of Accession: 1983
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-303
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 19519
   - Local Name: PA-303
   - Year of Accession: 1989
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA303
   - Year of Accession: 1982
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00192
   - Local Name: PA303
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 303
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
• Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668436     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1939
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 303 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1969


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 Small, L.W., 1966
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Frosty Pod Rot
Moderate Resistance
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1987


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 31.3 (pods per kg dried beans)


 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 34.0
Total Wet Weight: 45.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.94 g
Cotyledon Length: 19.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.6 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 8.60 %


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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 155.0 mm
Breadth: 86.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense


 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1372
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.75 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.14 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.61 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 46.14 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.64 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 259.70 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.52 g
Specific Leaf Area: 174.60 cm2 g-1


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: anthocyanin absent


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.52 mm
Ligule Width: 1.83 mm
Ovule Number: 40
Style Length: 2.15 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Yamada, M.M. et al., 1996
Self Compatibility: self incompatible

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Susilo, Agung W (2015) BREEDING PROGRAM AND DEVELOPMENT PLANTING MATERIAL OF COCOA (Theobroma Cacao L.) IN INDONESIA. Asia Pacific Regional Cocoa Research Workshop Davao Philippines, 12-15th October 2015.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1987) ICGT Germplasm at Marper Farm showing freedom from cushion Brooms and vegetative brooms. Unpublished report, CRU, Trinidad and Tobago.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Yamada, M.M., Bartley, B.G.D., Lopes, U.V. & Pinto, L.R.M. (1996) Heranca do fator compatibilidade em Theobroma cacao L. II. Relacoes fenotipicas em genotipos adicionais grupo Parinari (PA). Agrotropica 8 (2): 51-52.