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PA 175 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, Peru.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

Synonyms: G VI 321, PARINARI 175 [PER]


Location: Rio Maranon, Parinari, Loreto, Peru
Coordinates: 74.60 W, 4.60 S
   Marita, J. M. et al., 2001


 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari II'   Reference


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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 37     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 175 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 951
   - Local Name: PA 175
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-175
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21865
   - Local Name: PA-175 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2004
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA175
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 321
   - Local Name: PA 175 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00463
   - Local Name: PA 175
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: Pa 175
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: PA 175 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 175 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 175 [PER]


 Vascular Streak Dieback
22.00 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: Severery of infection was Moderate.. Sime Darby Plantations, Merlimau Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998


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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 116.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 29.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 26.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 126.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 32.2 (pods per kg dried beans)


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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 39.5
Total Dry Weight: 34.0 g
Dry Weight: 0.86 g
Note: 73 plants sampled
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 43.0
Total Wet Weight: 57.9 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.7 mm
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 39.4
Dry Weight: 0.78 g


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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.70 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 58.09 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 55.09 %
Note: 13 plants sampled
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 6.70 %
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 55.60 %
Testa: 6.00 %


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 167.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa


 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 37
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 2.51 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.05 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.81 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 50.96 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.43 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 3
Leaf Area: 155.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 0.97 g
Specific Leaf Area: 162.20 cm2 g-1


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.03 mm
Ligule Width: 2.15 mm
Ovule Number: 44
Style Length: 1.78 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Marita, J. M., Nienhuis, J., Pires, J. L. & Aitken, W. M. (2001) Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Theobroma cacao with Emphasis on Witches’ Broom Disease Resistance. Crop Sci. 41:1305–1316.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L). PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.