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ICS 75    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, Trinidad and Tobago.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: I S C 75

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
TRINITARIO TYPE x Unknown
 - Hda Carmencita
   Morera, J., 1992
 Mother to:
DOPOL 2    Bartley, B.G.D., 1983
 Father to:
DOPOL 2    Bartley, B.G.D., 1983

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 818     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: ICS 75
   - Year of Accession: 1998
• Accession: RUQ 818B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: ICS 75
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 271
   - Local Name: ICS 75
   - Year of Accession: 1978
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21178
   - Local Name: ICS-75
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 75
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS - 75
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS75
   - Year of Accession: 1971
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 75
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 75
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 75
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 75

 DISEASE

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 Frosty Pod Rot
Moderate Resistance
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1980
 Witches Broom
Intermediate
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Intermediate
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Resistant (Seedling).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997
Susceptible (Field Reaction).
 Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M., 1997

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 90.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 25.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 79.3 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 22.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 18.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Lamin, K., 1992
Seed Index: 62.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 18.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 34.7
Total Dry Weight: 44.8 g
Dry Weight: 1.26 g
Note: 22 plants sampled
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 35.1
Total Dry Weight: 39.9 g
Dry Weight: 1.11 g
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Present
Colour White: Present
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 38.0
Total Wet Weight: 74.3 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.41 g
Cotyledon Length: 24.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 14.1 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 41 %
Colour Light Purple: 36 %
Colour White: 10 %
Colour Mottled: 13 %
Shape: flat/round
Length: 23.8 mm
Width: 13.9 mm
Thickness: 9.1 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.90 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.30 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 41 %
Colour Light Purple: 36 %
Colour White: 10 %
Colour Mottled: 13 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.90 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.30 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.9 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.1 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 55.30 %
Note: 6 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.50 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: smooth
Length: 151.0 mm
Breadth: 89.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: angoleta
Husk Thickness: 10.8 mm
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 89.0 mm
Colour: yellow and red / yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.82
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: angoleta
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 10.8 mm
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 89.0 mm
Colour: yellow / bright red and yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.78
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 818
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.45 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.13 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.59 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 53.11 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.90 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 246.50 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.83 g
Specific Leaf Area: 136.80 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: green
 Reference

 LEAF

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 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 2.31
Basal Angle: 134.0 °
Apical Angle: 133.0 °
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 136 mm
Length: 258.0 mm
Width: 108.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.40
Basal Angle: 137.0 °
Apical Angle: 67.4 °
Petiole Length: 22 mm
Pulvinus Length: 17 mm
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 2.31
Basal Angle: 134.0 °
Apical Angle: 113.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.47 mm
Ligule Width: 2.79 mm
Ovule Number: 40
Style Length: 2.06 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 3.20 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.10 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.50
Ligule Length: 2.70 mm
Ligule Width: 2.70 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.03
Ribbon Length: 3.80 mm
Ribbon Colour: anthocyanin absent
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.30 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.28
Ovule Number: 45
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.30 mm
Pedicel Length: 11.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: present
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: white
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 3.20 mm
Sepal Colour: green
Sepal Width: 2.10 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Ligule Length: 2.70 mm
Ligule Width: 2.70 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.80 mm
Ribbon Colour: white
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.30 mm
Ovule Number: 45
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.30 mm
Pedicel Length: 11.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: green - white, yellow (ab), white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: present
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Morera, J. (1992) Registro Internacional de Cultivares de Cacao. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Computer printout.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1983) Report of consultancy visit to Cocoa Research Unit, UWI, Trinidad Nov.-Dec. 1983. Unpublished Report.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1993) Screening for resistance to Black Pod. T.N. Sreenivasan, CRU, Trinidad. Personal Communication.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1980) Screening for resistance to Black Pod. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1975-1980. University of the West Indies, Trinidad. p.16.
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Luz, E.D.M.N. & Silva, S.D.V.M. (1997) Evaluating resistance/tolerance to Witches' Broom disease in Bahia, Brazil. Final Report to ACRI. CEPLAC/CEPEC, February, 1997. pp. 56. Data supplied to ICGD by Luz & Silva.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Lamin, K. (1992) Data from Malaysian Cocoa Board. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.