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GU 277 /G    Theobroma cacao

 French Guiana - CIRAD-CP (1994)
Morphological characteristics of the clones held at CIRAD Guyane. Data supplied to ICGD on computer diskette. Dr. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD Guyane.

Collected by Clement/Salle IRCC.
Location: Haut Camopi+Ecuador, French Guiana.

Lachenaud, 1993a [LAC93A]. Haut-Camopi material (See CAM 1, 3, 7, 9, 12) generally tall, Leaves - pigmented flushes, Fruit - heterogeneity in pod shape but usually green, clear basal constriction, obtuse apex, intermediate surface rugosity, prominent paired ridges.

Notes:  French Guiana - CIRAD-CP, 1994 [GUY94A] GU 112-359 from French Guiana, GU 360-370 from Ecuador.

Some publications have erroneously omitted the GU code and list only the clone number and suffix, for example 269H = GU 269/H and N 123 = GU 123/N.

2 May 2002 Data collected on wild trees from which the GU material were collected as seed has been removed from the ICGD on the recommendation of Philippe Lachenaud (CIRAD-CP). The descriptors referred only to the wild material which was never cloned in genebanks and as such the presence of these data were believed to be misleading. All GU material was collected as seed and properly labelled material should include a letter suffix at the end of the name.


Location: R. Camopi, Haut Camopi, French Guiana (primary forest)
Date: 9 May 1987
Coordinates: 53°13'15" W, 2°21'18" N
Material collected: Seed
Notes: Montagne Cacao, (R. Bank) same tree as #276
Expedition Code: 87GU
   Sallee, B., 1987


GU 277  x Unknown


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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 771     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: GU 277/G
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22064
   - Local Name: GU 277-G
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: GU 277 /G
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: GU277/G
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: GU 277/G
   - Year of Accession: 1994


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 Witches Broom
Resistant (Lab Test).
Note: Population CAM 1
 Lachenaud, P., 2006
Resistant (Twigs and/or pods (Field Reaction)).
 Lachenaud, Ph. et al., 2007
Resistant (Shoot (Field Reaction)).
Note: Population CAM 1
 Lachenaud, P., 2006


 K. F. N’Guessan et al., 2003
Very Resistant
 Lachenaud, Ph. et al., 2007


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 32.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Lachenaud, Ph. et al., 2007
Productivity: high


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 38.0
Total Wet Weight: 50.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.81 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.4 mm


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.30 %


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 165.0 mm
Breadth: 78.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa


 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 771
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.39 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.11 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.19 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 48.13 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.68 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 279.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.90 g
Specific Leaf Area: 147.90 cm2 g-1


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin


 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.77 mm
Ligule Width: 2.33 mm
Ovule Number: 43
Style Length: 2.03 mm
Pedicel Colour: green

French Guiana - CIRAD-CP (1994) Morphological characteristics of the clones held at CIRAD Guyane. Data supplied to ICGD on computer diskette. Dr. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD Guyane.
Sallee, B. (1987) Compte rendu de prospection dans les populations naturelles de Theobroma cacao L. du Haut Camopi (Guyane Francais) 14/4 au 12/5/87. Unpublished report, IRCC/CIRAD, 97387 Kourou, Guyane, pp. 45.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3). Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - CIRAD (1994) Corrections to the accession list for the Ivory Coast cocoa collections. D. Clement, CIRAD, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions. CRU website.
Lachenaud, P. (2006) Some characteristics of the GU clones held at the University of Reading. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD, France. Personal Communication, September 2006.
Lachenaud, Ph., Paulin, D., Ducamp, M. & Thevenin, J.-M. (2007) Twenty years of agronomic evaluation of wild cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao L.) from French Guiana. Scientia Horticulturae. 113: pp 313–321.
K. F. N’Guessan, A. B. Eskes & Ph. Lachenaud (2003) Etude de la Resistance du Cacaoyer aux Mirides : Classification des Grands Groupes de Cacaoyers en Fonction de Leur Niveau de Resistance ou Sensibilite. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials. Personal communication.