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SPEC 54 /1    Theobroma cacao

 Baker, R.E.D., Cope, F.W., Holliday, P.C., Bartley, B.G. & Taylor, D.J. (1953)
The Anglo-Colombian cacao collecting expedition.. Report of Cacao Research, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 9: pp. 8-29.

Derivation: SPECimen.
Collected by Various.

Notes:  Baker et al., 1953 [BAK53A] The Anglo-Colombian Expedition collected material from various places in Colombia ( Amazonas & Vaupes) in 1952 and involved many different collectors. The material was sent onto Trinidad. The name SPEC was given to everything that was collected including Theobroma species other then T. cacao and Herranias.

Bartley, 1983a [BAR83A]. This material is divided into two classes:

1) Collections from the Amazon - up to SPEC 54,

2) Collections from other populations, usually cultivated and of Criollo or Trinitario descent.
 

Synonyms: SPEC 54 /5, G VI 212, COL 54 /1 [SPE], M SPEC 54 /1

 NOTES

Baker et al., 1953 [BAK53A] The Anglo-Colombian Expedition collected material from various places in Colombia ( Amazonas & Vaupes) in 1952 and involved many different collectors. The material was sent onto Trinidad. The name SPEC was given to everything that was collected including Theobroma species other then T. cacao and Herranias. Bartley, 1983a [BAR83A]. This material is divided into two classes: 1) Collections from the Amazon - up to SPEC 54, 2) Collections from other populations, usually cultivated and of Criollo or Trinitario descent.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Papuri, Vaupes, Colombia (cocoa plantation)
Date: 28 November 1952
Coordinates: 69.00 W, 1.00 S
Material collected: Seed
Notes: San Bernando old Dutch mission
Expedition Code: 52CO
   Baker, R.E.D. et al., 1953
   Trinidad - U.W.I., 1952
   Cope, F.W., 1953

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
SPEC 54  x Unknown   Trinidad - U.W.I., 1952

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774325   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629499
BioSample: SAMN09934555
SampleSource: Costa Rica, Tree_ID: Tc05194
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938227   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686896
BioSample: SAMN12500388
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000050
Run: SRR9938286   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686837
BioSample: SAMN12500388
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000050
Run: SRR9938287   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686836
BioSample: SAMN12500388
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000050
Run: SRR9938288   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686835
BioSample: SAMN12500388
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000050

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 50     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SPEC 54/1
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 554
   - Local Name: SPEC 54.1
• Accession: 554
   - Local Name: SPEC 54.1
• Accession: 554
   - Local Name: SPEC 54.1
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC-54/1
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21847
   - Local Name: SPEC-54/1
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54-1
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54-1
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54-1
   - Year of Accession: 1989
• Local Name: SPEC 54-1
   - Year of Accession: 1977
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 212
   - Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00276
   - Local Name: SPEC541
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54-1
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1999   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 /1
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 31
   - Local Name: SPEC54-1
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPEC 54 1
   - Year of Accession: 1993

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Moderately Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on perithecium development.
 Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello, 2003
Susceptible (Branch).
Note: Based on mycelium growth and the production of perithecia..
 Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva, 2003
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 31.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Colour Purple: Present
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 34.0
Total Wet Weight: 48.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.94 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.0 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Length: 144.0 mm
Breadth: 77.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 50
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 2.96 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.06 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.81 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 61.95 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.85 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 306.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.99 g
Specific Leaf Area: 154.90 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference

Baker, R.E.D., Cope, F.W., Holliday, P.C., Bartley, B.G. & Taylor, D.J. (1953) The Anglo-Colombian cacao collecting expedition.. Report of Cacao Research, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad 9: pp. 8-29.
Trinidad - U.W.I. (1952) Cocoa Collecting Expedition Colombia 1952. Record of material received.. Unpublished Notebook, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
Cope, F.W. (1953) An interim report on the Anglo-Colombian cocoa-collecting expedition.. In: Report of the 1953 Cocoa Conference, London. Cocoa, Chocolate & Confectionery Alliance, London, U.K. pp. 57-63.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Eskes, A.B. (1999) Advanced Draft. Working Procedures and Recording Sheets for the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Project.. CFC/ICCO/IPGRI Cocoa Project.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) List of Imported Clones of the Malaysian Cocoa Board, January 1998. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Ricardo A. Delgado & Carmen Suárez Capello (2003) Evaluación de la Resistencia Al Mal del Machete en Clones Internacionales de Cacao en Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva (2003) Ensaios Para Avaliação do Cacaueiro à Murcha-de-Ceratocystis na Bahia, Brasil. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.