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SPA 9 [COL]    Theobroma cacao

 Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989)
? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.

Derivation: Seleccion PAlmira.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Palmira, COL.

As these are all progeny from a single fruit they should all have basically then same characteristics. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. Leaf - some unpigmented, large, broad and have an undulating (puckered/crinkled) surface. Fruit - basically similar in shape being broad elongate with slight roughness. Seed - some white. Bartley, 1997a [BAR97A]. Variation seen in flush leaf pigmentation from light green (white); the pigmentation of the stamen, which is often intense; and the colour of the fruit, which is either light green or dark green with a tendancy to be shiny.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types.

Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?).

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region.

In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.


 

Synonyms: SC 64 [COL], KW443

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979, [LOC79A] Collections made in Colombia by Pound, somewhere in the Amazon valley. Very similar to some Ecuador Oriente types. Progeny of a fruit donated to Colombia by Pound (1943?). Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The association between unpigmented flush leaves and white cotyledons found in some of these clones is typical of the genotypes from the Napo river. Pound did visit Santa Clotilde, the Peruvian research station on this river and the material may therefore have originated in this region. In previous versions of the ICGD the SPA [COL] clones were included as synonyms of the group SC [COL] (SC 57 - 76 inclusive). The synonymy has now been reversed as this material was originally described as SPA and is more widely known under this name, as advised by Dr. Bartley.

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 235     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1989
• Accession: RUQ 235B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1989
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 223
   - Local Name: SPA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1981
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 454
   - Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1979
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA-9
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SC 64 [COL]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10508
   - Local Name: SPA-9
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA-9
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA - 9
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1982
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00443
   - Local Name: SPA9
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
List received in 1995   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1984
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1969
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 315264     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]
   - Year of Accession: 1939
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: SPA 9 [COL]

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Morera, J & Mora, A., 1990
Resistant
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Resistant
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Frosty Pod Rot
Moderately Susceptible, 96.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 2.8 and Internal Severety = 3.0
 Phillips, W., 1996
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 3.1 and Internal Severety = 4.1
 Phillips, W., 1997
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Phillips, W., 1997
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
Resistant, 13.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe and not wounded
 Lopez-Baez, O. et al., 1996
 Vascular Streak Dieback
70.70 % Infection (Field Reaction).
Note: 59.0% of trees with <30% infected branches, 9.2% of trees with 30 to 70% infected branches, 2.5% of trees with >70% infected branches.. Sime Darby Plantations, Devon Estate.
 Lam, K.S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 121.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 26.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 29.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 107.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: medium
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Seed Index: 122.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 33.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 46.0
Total Dry Weight: 37.8 g
Dry Weight: 0.82 g
Note: 61 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 48.0
Total Wet Weight: 48.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.71 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.2 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 30.4
Maximum Number: 48
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.29 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.93 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.0 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.0 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 93 %
Colour Light Purple: 7 %
Shape: elongate/round
Length: 22.7 mm
Width: 12.3 mm
Thickness: 8.6 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.52 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.02 g
 Reference
 Colombia - ICA Palmira, 1986
Colour Purple: 89 %
Colour Light Purple: 11 %
Size: medium
Number: 31.1
Length: 19.6 mm
Width: 10.8 mm
Thickness: 6.9 mm
Total Wet Weight: 80.3 g
Wet Weight: 1.24 g
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.12 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.82 g
 Reference
 Lam, K.S., 1992
Number: 44.2
Dry Weight: 0.81 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 93 %
Colour Light Purple: 7 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.52 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.02 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.6 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 56.30 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 58.35 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.00 %
Note: 9 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.70 %
 Reference
 Colombia - ICA Palmira, 1986
Testa: 7.57 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 143.0 mm
Breadth: 75.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse - slightly acute
Rugosity: very slight
Husk Thickness: 9.75 mm (11.7 - 7.8)
Length: 158.0 mm
Breadth: 84.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 533.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 5
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.88
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.68
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: amelonado
Husk Thickness: 18.1 mm
Length: 176.0 mm
Breadth: 98.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.80
 Reference
 Colombia - ICA Palmira, 1986
Shape: orbicular
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 0.65 mm
Length: 158.1 mm
Breadth: 88.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Weight: 483.0 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.79
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: angoleta
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 18.1 mm
Length: 176.0 mm
Breadth: 98.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.79
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 235
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 2.56 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.05 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.77 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 55.20 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.44 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 233.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.79 g
Specific Leaf Area: 130.30 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: deep green
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: very slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: green
 Reference

 LEAF

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 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 2.79
Basal Angle: 173.0 °
Apical Angle: 96.0 °
 Reference
 Colombia - ICA Palmira, 1986
Shape: elliptic
Length: 257.8 mm
Width: 90.6 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.84
Apex Form: acuminate
Pulvinus Present: Yes
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 117 mm
Length: 237.0 mm
Width: 98.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.40
Basal Angle: 115.4 °
Apical Angle: 71.5 °
Petiole Length: 9 mm
Pulvinus Length: 12 mm
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 2.79
Basal Angle: 173.0 °
Apical Angle: 96.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.48 mm
Ligule Width: 2.33 mm
Ovule Number: 54
Style Length: 1.68 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.29 mm
Sepal Length: 7.61 mm
Ligule Length: 7.05 mm
Ligule Width: 2.63 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.01 mm
Ovary Length: 1.39 mm
Style Length: 2.39 mm
Staminode Length: 6.09 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellowish white
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: anthocyanin absent
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.80 mm
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Width: 2.60 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 2.87
Ligule Length: 4.20 mm
Ligule Width: 2.80 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.46
Ribbon Length: 3.00 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.70 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.38
Ovule Number: 59
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 2.40 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.00 mm
Pedicel Length: 16.90 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyani, moderate anthocyanin (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 A. González & M. Ventura, 2007
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Colombia - ICA Palmira, 1986
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Petal Length: 9.50 mm
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Width: 2.00 mm
Sepal Length: 6.65 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.32
Ligule Length: 2.76 mm
Ligule Width: 2.00 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.38
Ribbon Length: 3.20 mm
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.70 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.70
Ovule Number: 61
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: purplish red
Staminode Length: 6.00 mm
Pedicel Length: 10.25 mm
Pedicel Colour: greenish white
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: absent
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Self Compatibility: self compatible
Note: Translation of Pantone colour codes.
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: white
Ligule Colour: green - white
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.80 mm
Sepal Colour: white
Sepal Width: 2.60 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Ligule Length: 4.20 mm
Ligule Width: 2.80 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.00 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.70 mm
Ovule Number: 59
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 2.40 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.00 mm
Pedicel Length: 16.90 mm
Pedicel Colour: green, green - white (ab), white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Colombia - ICA Palmira (1989) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA Palmira, Colombia.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Dominican Republic - CDC (1987) Informe de los trabajos de indentificacion clonal realizados por el Dr. B.G.Bartley durante su visita a la Estacion "Mata Larga".. Unpublished of the Comision del Cacau, Dominican Republic. pp 14
IDIAF (2011) Cocoa accessions held in the Dominican Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Research (IDIAF).. M. Ventura, personal communication, September 2011.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Guatemala - Los Brilliantes (1994) Lista de clones existentes en la Estacion de Investigacion y Produccion Agricola "Los Brillantes" a Agosto 1994.. M.T. Reyes Barrios, EIAP Guatemala. Personal Communication.
Honduras - CEDEC (1994) List of accessions in CEDEC, La Masica, Honduras.. J.A. Sanchez, FHIA, Honduras. Personal Communication.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Lopez-Baez, O., Cueto-Moreno, J. & Fraire-Vazquez, G. (1995) Progressos en el mejoramiento genetico del cacao Theobroma cacao L. en Mexico.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cocoa Breeding Strategies, Kuala Lumpur, 1994. INGENIC, Reading, U.K. pp. 18-25.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Morera, J & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Programa de Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 16 pp.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Phytophthora palmivora using the Paper Disc method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Lopez-Baez, O., Fraire, V.G. & Cueto, M.J. (1996) Mejoramiento genetico para la resistencia a Phytophthora en Mexico.. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease Resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement, INGENIC, Salvador, 24th-26th September, 1996. pp.51-55.
Lam, K.S. (1992) Performance of imported clones in Sime Darby Plantations.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1986) ? A catalogue of the cacao germplasm at ICA Palmira.. ICA Palmira, Colombia.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
A. González & M. Ventura (2007) Autocompatibilidad Sexual de Clones de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). In: Resultados de investigación en cacao. IDIAF, 2007