Search Results

SCA 9    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Collected by Pound.
Location: Rio Ucayali, PER.

Notes:  Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 22 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Fausto Coral said that SCA stands for Sabino Contamana. Bartley considers that it is likely that the material comes from the town known to Pound as Contamana (on the R. Ucayali) since these progenies are very similar to P 31 [POU] from this area. Miguel Aspiazu (who accompanied Pound in Ecuador) said SCA came from Sabino and this may have been misinterpreted as SCAVINA.

UK - CABI Bioscience, 1998 [CAB98A] During surveys of Theobroma and Herrania spp. along the Amazon and Ucayali rivers (Pucallpa-Iquitos) in Octobet 1998, the local guide provided some detailed information on the history of the region. It seems the origin of the Scavinas is near to Iquitos around the Nanay river, from a Hacienda owned by the ESCAVINO family. The farm goes back to the pre-1930's but most of it has now been destroyed as the river Nanay has changed its course. This story, and the corruption of the name, was confirmed by a respected Peruvian agronomist, Reynaldo Crespo, who worked in the region 40 years ago.
 

Synonyms: EET 109 [IMP], EET IMP 109, SCAVINA 9

 NOTES

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 22 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Fausto Coral said that SCA stands for Sabino Contamana. Bartley considers that it is likely that the material comes from the town known to Pound as Contamana (on the R. Ucayali) since these progenies are very similar to P 31 [POU] from this area. Miguel Aspiazu (who accompanied Pound in Ecuador) said SCA came from Sabino and this may have been misinterpreted as SCAVINA. UK - CABI Bioscience, 1998 [CAB98A] During surveys of Theobroma and Herrania spp. along the Amazon and Ucayali rivers (Pucallpa-Iquitos) in Octobet 1998, the local guide provided some detailed information on the history of the region. It seems the origin of the Scavinas is near to Iquitos around the Nanay river, from a Hacienda owned by the ESCAVINO family. The farm goes back to the pre-1930's but most of it has now been destroyed as the river Nanay has changed its course. This story, and the corruption of the name, was confirmed by a respected Peruvian agronomist, Reynaldo Crespo, who worked in the region 40 years ago.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
AX 251    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
GNV 331    Purdy, L.H. et al., 1998
TSA 1073    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 862    Freeman, W.E., No Date
 Father to:
EET 380 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
EET 381 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
EET 382 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
QH 240    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993
QH 441    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Contamana' Population
Subgroup: 'Scavina'   Reference

 HELD IN

Show Details Hide Details

Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1064     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 2000
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1026
   - Local Name: SCA 9
• Accession: 1026
   - Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 1997   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10465
   - Local Name: SCA-9
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: EET -109
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 197
   - Local Name: SCA-9
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00271
   - Local Name: SCA9
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00682
   - Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: Sca9
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: TARS 16906 A     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1989
• Accession: TARS 16906 B     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1989
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: SCA 9
   - Year of Accession: 1989

 DISEASE

Show Details Hide Details

 Frosty Pod Rot
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.1 and Internal Severety = 4.7
 Phillips, W., 1996
Susceptible, 100.00 % Infection
Note: External Severety = 4.1 and Internal Severety = 4.7
 Phillips, W., 1997
 Phytophthora
Cross: SCA 9 x AML [MAL] 
15.40 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = AB
 Jagoret, P. et al., 1995
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Morera, J., 1993
 Vascular Streak Dieback
Cross: SCA 9 x IMC 67 
Tolerant
 Bong, C.L. et al., 1995
Cross: SCA 9 x PA 138 [PER] 
Tolerant
 Bong, C.L. et al., 1995
Cross: SCA 9 x PA 156 [PER] 
Tolerant
 Bong, C.L. et al., 1995
8.54 % Infection
Note: 24 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
Tolerant
 Chong, T.C. & Phua, P.K., 1993
Tolerant
 Bong, C.L. & Phua, P.K., 1989

 YIELD

Show Details Hide Details

 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 103.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 34.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 153.8 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 42.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 20.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 101.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: high
 Reference

 BEAN

Show Details Hide Details

 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 30.3
Dry Weight: 0.97 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 36.5
Total Dry Weight: 23.8 g
Dry Weight: 0.65 g
Note: 31 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: small
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 46.0
Total Wet Weight: 65.9 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.07 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.4 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.0 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Light Purple: Absent
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 29.5
Maximum Number: 53
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.44 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.99 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.3 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.4 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.3 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 55.10 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 56.97 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.14 %
Note: 6 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.00 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

Show Details Hide Details

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Length: 161.0 mm
Breadth: 87.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 9.7 mm (11.8 - 7.6)
Length: 163.0 mm
Breadth: 83.0 mm
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Weight: 443.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 7
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.96
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.70
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1064
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.57 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.12 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.10 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 56.51 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.30 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 272.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.90 g
Specific Leaf Area: 145.10 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 142 mm
Length: 289.0 mm
Width: 107.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.70
Basal Angle: 137.1 °
Apical Angle: 88.5 °
Petiole Length: 15 mm
Pulvinus Length: 11 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

Show Details Hide Details

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.81 mm
Ligule Width: 2.14 mm
Ovule Number: 57
Style Length: 2.27 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.56 mm
Sepal Length: 7.56 mm
Ligule Length: 5.44 mm
Ligule Width: 2.30 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.01 mm
Ovary Length: 1.33 mm
Style Length: 2.39 mm
Staminode Length: 5.84 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish white
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of AX Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp 18.
Purdy, L.H., Dickstein, E.R. & Schmidt, R.A. (1998) Relative resistance of cacao clone to Crinipellis perniciosa determined by artificial inoculation using an automated basidiospore spray system.. Agrotropica 10 (1): 9-12.
Freeman, W.E. (No Date) Cited by C. Gonsalves in Cocoa Research Unit Newsletter, No. 3, 1996.
Ecuador - Pichilingue (1987) Nomina de clones y numero de plantas existentes en la coleccion internacional de germoplasma de cacao, EET, Pichilingue.. Unpublished report, E.E.T. Pichilingue, Ecuador. pp. 18.
Lee, M.T., Tay, E.B., Lamin, K. & Saedi, M. (1993) Catalogue of locally collected clones in Malaysia.. Catalogue compiled by the Malaysian Cocoa Board, Sabah, Malaysia.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Brazil - Almirante Cacao (1997) Cocoa Germplasm Importation Lists 1994 - 1997. Unpublished list supplied by Martin Aitken.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Phillips, W. (1996) Cocoa cultivar reaction when innoculated with Moniliophthora roreri. . Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Phillips, W. (1997) Results of the artificial inoculation of Moniliophthora rorei using the Aspersion method.. Unpublished data supplied by W. Phillips, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal communication
Jagoret, P., Bastide, Ph., Pilecki, A., Besacier, C. & Eskes, A.B. (1995) Performance et resistance a la pourriture brune d'hybrides de cacaoyer au Vanuatu (Pacifique Sud).. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 425-431.
Morera, J. (1993) Reaction of clones to Phytophthora palmivora. . J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Personal Communication.
Bong, C.L., Tay, E.B., Lee, M.T. & Chong, T.C. (1995) Comparative study on cultural practices and planting materials in the management of vascular streak dieback and productivity in cocoa.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 197-203.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Chong, T.C. & Phua, P.K. (1993) Cocoa germplasm conservation and utilization at Cocoa Research Station, Quoin Hill-Department of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia.. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Conservation, Characterisation and Utilisation of Cocoa Genetic Resources in the 21st Century. CRU, UWI, Trinidad. pp. 379-388.
Bong, C.L. & Phua, P.K. (1989) Screening of hybrid materials for resistance to VSD.. In: Research on Cocoa VSD in Sabah. Technical Bulletin No. 9, Dept. of Agriculture, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 43-39.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.