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POUND 18    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1943)
Cacao and witches' broom disease. Report on a recent visit to the Amazon territory of Peru, September 1942-February 1943.. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 73-91.

Derivation: POUND (collector).
Collected by Pound.

Notes:  Chalmers, 1968 [CHA68A] Trees were marked and initial collections made in 1968. Chalmers revisited the area in 1970 (Chalmers, 1970a [CHA70A]), recollecting from some trees and making new collections from newly marked trees. Further collections were made in 1972 (Chalmers, 1972b [CHA72B]).
 

Synonyms: PERU 18 [POU], P 18 [POU]

 NOTES

Chalmers, 1968 [CHA68A] Trees were marked and initial collections made in 1968. Chalmers revisited the area in 1970 (Chalmers, 1970a [CHA70A]), recollecting from some trees and making new collections from newly marked trees. Further collections were made in 1972 (Chalmers, 1972b [CHA72B]).

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Amazonas, Loreto, Peru
Date: 1942
Coordinates: 73.10 W, 3.45 S
Material collected: Budwood
Notes: island South of Iquitos
Expedition Code: 42PO
   Pound, F.J., 1943

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
TSA 1082    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1085    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSAN 1057    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1068    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1069    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1076    Shripat, C., 1996
TSH 1095    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 1102    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1103    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1104    Bartley, B.G.D., 1996
TSH 1105    Freeman, W.E., No Date
 Father to:
AX 119    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 491    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
TSA 1072    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1106    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1107    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSA 1108    Freeman, W.E., No Date
TSH 1112    Bartley, B.G.D., 1995

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 874     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: POUND 18 [POU]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
• Accession: RUQ 874B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: POUND 18 [POU]
   - Year of Accession: 1998
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1027
   - Local Name: P 18
List received in 1987   Reference
• Accession: 186
   - Local Name: P 18 [POU]
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: POUND-18
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: P 18 [POU]
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21947
   - Local Name: Pound-18
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: POUND18
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: P 18 [POU]
   - Year of Accession: 1954
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 177
   - Local Name: POUND-18
• Accession: VTLC 196
   - Local Name: POUND-18
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00675
   - Local Name: POUND 18 (POU)
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: P 18 [POU]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: POUND 18 [POU]

 DISEASE

 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
 Witches Broom
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 17.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 58.0
Total Wet Weight: 72.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.97 g
Cotyledon Length: 24.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.0 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: round
Length: 23.0 mm
Width: 11.6 mm
Thickness: 7.5 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.19 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 100 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.19 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.88 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.6 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 7.5 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.20 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 188.0 mm
Breadth: 90.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: cundeamor
Husk Thickness: 12.6 mm
Length: 197.0 mm
Breadth: 91.0 mm
Colour: yellow
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.18
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: cundeamor
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 12.6 mm
Colour: yellow
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 874
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.70 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.26 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 65.03 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.43 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 320.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.04 g
Specific Leaf Area: 158.00 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: white
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 154 mm
Length: 303.0 mm
Width: 97.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.10
Basal Angle: 146.9 °
Apical Angle: 53.8 °
Petiole Length: 14 mm
Pulvinus Length: 8 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.13 mm
Ligule Width: 2.97 mm
Ovule Number: 55
Style Length: 2.37 mm
Pedicel Colour: green
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.50 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 7.80 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.17
Ligule Length: 2.50 mm
Ligule Width: 2.30 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.05
Ribbon Length: 2.90 mm
Ribbon Colour: intense anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.40 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.11
Ovule Number: 74
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 1.70 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.10 mm
Pedicel Colour: anthocyanin absent, slight anthocyani (ab), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: yellow
Stamen Colour: negligible anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 3.50 mm
Sepal Colour: green
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 7.80 mm
Ligule Length: 2.50 mm
Ligule Width: 2.30 mm
Ribbon Length: 2.90 mm
Ribbon Colour: yellow
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.40 mm
Ovule Number: 74
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 1.70 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.10 mm
Pedicel Length: 12.90 mm
Pedicel Colour: white, green (ab), white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1943) Cacao and witches' broom disease. Report on a recent visit to the Amazon territory of Peru, September 1942-February 1943.. Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 73-91.
Freeman, W.E. (No Date) Cited by C. Gonsalves in Cocoa Research Unit Newsletter, No. 3, 1996.
Shripat, C. (1996) The Cocoa Breeding Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Trinidad.. Presented at the International Workshop on The Utilisation of Genetic Resources of the ICGT, June, 1996. Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1996) Additional Notes with the translation of Coral's field notes from R. Ucayali, Peru (1987-88) expedition.. B.G.D Bartley. Personal Communications. (See also Coral 1988).
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of AX Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp 18.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1995) Notes on the meaning and origins of clone names.. B.G.D Bartley. Personal Communications.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Chesney, P.E. (2008) Guyana accessions.. Personal communication, September 2008.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.