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PA 124 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 124 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
AX 181    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
GEBP 565 /A-F [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019
GEBP 571 /A-F [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1576     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 124 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22298
   - Local Name: PA-124 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2010
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA124
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 124 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 124 [PER]

 DISEASE

 Phytophthora
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 2 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 29.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 39.0
Total Wet Weight: 46.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.86 g
Cotyledon Length: 18.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 10.9 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.10 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 186.0 mm
Breadth: 75.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1576
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.35 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.09 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.09 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 48.21 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.05 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 251.90 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.49 g
Specific Leaf Area: 169.70 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.08 mm
Ligule Width: 2.60 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Length: 2.22 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of AX Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp 18.
Frances Bekele (2019) Pedigree data for the GEBP clones supplied to ICQC,R (UK) by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Data supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2019.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.