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PA 39 [PER]    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: PArinari.
Collected by Pound.
Location: Parinari, PER.

Pound, 1938a: [POU38A] type 1 - long, generally warty pods with a pronounced bottleneck and a conspicuous point, type 2 - lack the pronounced bottleneck, type 3 - pods shorter and lack both the pronounced bottle neck and point, type 4 - smooth lagarta, ie with bottle neck and point but with shallow furrows and a smooth shell, type 5 - as type 1 but with very small beans, type 6 - short, 10 ridged oval, warty pods, sometimes with red tint. Posnette, 1945A [POS45A]. Parinari type has long petioles (2-3 cm) with pulvini separated by a long, deep constriction even when young. The stamen filaments are not pigmented.

Notes:  Selections from the region around Parinari.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6.

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.
 

Synonyms: PARINARI 39 [PER]

 NOTES

Selections from the region around Parinari. Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from some 20 trees free of Witches' Broom in a population of type 1,2,3, and 4. Further collections may have made around Porvenir (between the Boca del Huallaga and Boca del Pastaza) from types 5 and 6. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 277 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1998a [BAR98A] Parinari means tree and it is the name of a place on the River Amazon (Maranon) in Peru. However it is believed to refer to a region rather than a specific place. Types 5 and 6 were collected from along the whole stretch of the Maranon River.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Maranon' Population
Subgroup: 'Parinari IV'   Reference

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1567     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2005
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1245
   - Local Name: PA 39 T2
• Accession: 1308
   - Local Name: PA 39
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA-39/T2
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21192
   - Local Name: PA-39(146)
   - Year of Accession: 1996
• Accession: 21193
   - Local Name: PA-39(170)
   - Year of Accession: 1996
• Accession: 22384
   - Local Name: PA-39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 2017
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA - 39
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: PA39
List received in 1971   Reference
• Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1992
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668434     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: PA 39 [PER]
   - Year of Accession: 1939

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 26.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 39.0
Total Wet Weight: 53.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.97 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.9 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 146.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1567
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.95 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.18 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.91 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 35.44 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.11 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 349.80 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.04 g
Specific Leaf Area: 171.40 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 8.50 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.30 mm
Ligule Width: 2.02 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Length: 2.07 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Leon, J. & Sgaravatti, E. (1971) Provisional list of genetic materials for plant introduction and exchange.. AGPE Misc 71/2. FAO, Rome. pp. 26.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1994) Accessions in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection obtained from USDA Mayaguez since 1991.. M.T. Lee, MCB, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.