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AMAZ 12    Theobroma cacao

 Chalmers, W.S. (1973)
Report on a visit to Ecuador, Peru, and Brasil, March 1st-April 15th 1973.. Unpublished Report. Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp. 31.

Derivation: r. AMAZonas.
Collected by INIAP/UWI Chalmers.
Location: R. Amazonas nr Iquitos, ECU.

(Chalmers, 1973a [CHA73A]) AMAZ 3 [CHA] to AMAZ 10 [CHA] and AMAZ 15 [CHA] were selected from a planted area of cocoa with trees showing a range of pod types from five pairs of very distinct, slightly rugose ridges to a very smooth ridgeless calabacillo type. Most had a slight bottleneck and several had a pronounced "blanco" foundation colour. Several pods showed a very characteristic slightly rough, minutely pimpled surface. Some had a very hard pod wall (AMAZ 5, 7 and 8 [CHA]). The number of seeds per pod varied between 11 and 49. All the seeds were dark purple, generally small to medium in size and, within the same pod, plump and flattish seed occured. Only AMAZ 3 [CHA] and AMAZ [15] showed any Witches broom infection. AMAZ 11and AMAZ 12 were collected from Iquitos island, where Pound collected the IMC family. Many of the trees growing in the farm had pods very similar to those of IMC 67 although AMAZ 12 had a more Amelonado shaped pod with a fairly hard shell. AMAZ 13 [CHA] and AMAZ 14 [CHA] had marked pigmentation in the flush. The peduncles were pigmented but not the stamens. The young pods were smooth and Amelonado shaped. The petioles were distinctively short, thick and without any constriction.

Notes:  Collected in 1973.
 

 Bartley, B.G.D. (1997)
Comments made by Dr. Bartley during his visit to Reading (4th - 15th August 1997).. B.G.D.Bartley. Personal Communications.

Notes:  The seed collected on this expedition was divided between Trinidad and Ecuador. At present only the data on the seedling progeny at Trinidad is available.
 

Synonyms: AMA 12 [CHA], AMAZONAS 12, AMAZON 12

 NOTES

The seed collected on this expedition was divided between Trinidad and Ecuador. At present only the data on the seedling progeny at Trinidad is available.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Amazonas, Loreto, Peru
Date: April 1973
Coordinates: 73.10 W, 3.45 S
Material collected: Budwood and seeds (pod)
Notes: Iquitos -Isla. NW of Hotel Turistica.2m from AMAZ 11
Expedition Code: 73CH
   Chalmers, W.S., 1973

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
AMAZ 12 /4    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774307   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629517
BioSample: SAMN09934398
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: 17443
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938231   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686892
BioSample: SAMN12500392
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000003
Run: SRR9938273   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686850
BioSample: SAMN12500392
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000003
Run: SRR9938279   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686844
BioSample: SAMN12500392
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000003
Run: SRR9938280   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686843
BioSample: SAMN12500392
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000003

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 334     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: AMAZ 12 [CHA]
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 1034
   - Local Name: AMAZON 12
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ-12
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21970
   - Local Name: AMAZ-12
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMA - 12
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ12
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 131
   - Local Name: Amaz.12
• Accession: VTLC 156
   - Local Name: AMAZ-12
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00654
   - Local Name: AMAZ 12 (CHA)
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ 12 [CHA]

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Susceptible
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 3 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
 Witches Broom
Absent (Expedition data).
 Chalmers, W.S., 1970
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998

 PESTS

 Red Squirrel
Susceptible (Sciurus granatensis)
 Warren, J. & Emamdie, D., 1993

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 24.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 21.9 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 54.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.13 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.8 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.3 mm
 Reference
 Chalmers, W.S., 1970
Number: 19.0
Note: expedition data
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 40.0
Total Wet Weight: 59.9 g
Total Dry Weight: 70.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.14 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.5 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.4 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.3 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 54.87 %
Testa: 6.59 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Length: 183.0 mm
Breadth: 86.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Chalmers, W.S., 1970
Hardness: moderate
Note: expedition data
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: cundeamor
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: intense
Husk Thickness: 16.95 mm
Size: large
Length: 195.6 mm
Breadth: 88.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 472.77 g
Placenta Weight: 12.14 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.22
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 334
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.31 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.11 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.56 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 46.52 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 2.92 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 3
Leaf Area: 296.60 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.91 g
Specific Leaf Area: 158.90 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: anthocyanin absent
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 116 mm
Length: 250.0 mm
Width: 86.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.90
Basal Angle: 106.5 °
Apical Angle: 60.4 °
Petiole Length: 11 mm
Pulvinus Length: 14 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.65 mm
Ligule Width: 2.32 mm
Ovule Number: 50
Style Length: 2.62 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.62 mm
Ligule Width: 2.26 mm
Ovule Number: 49
Style Length: 2.63 mm
Pedicel Colour: very slight anthocyanin
 Reference

Chalmers, W.S. (1973) Report on a visit to Ecuador, Peru, and Brasil, March 1st-April 15th 1973.. Unpublished Report. Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp. 31.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1997) Comments made by Dr. Bartley during his visit to Reading (4th - 15th August 1997).. B.G.D.Bartley. Personal Communications.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad . In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Chalmers, W.S. (1970) Data accumulated from Chalmers' Collection reports from expeditions to Ecuador between 1968-1973.. Series of 7 unpublished Reports. Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies. See other reference entries for details.
Warren, J. & Emamdie, D. (1993) Rodent resistance in cacao Theobroma cacao L.. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 70: pp.286-288
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.