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IMC 50    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 50

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774285   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629539
BioSample: SAMN09934471
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: Tc00560

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1590     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 50
   - Year of Accession: 2006
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22168
   - Local Name: IMC-50
   - Year of Accession: 2010
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 50

 DISEASE

 Phytophthora
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 2 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 29.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 48.0
Total Wet Weight: 52.4 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.71 g
Cotyledon Length: 21.3 mm
Cotyledon Width: 11.5 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 138.0 mm
Breadth: 75.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 1.6 MPa ? 2.0 MPa
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1590
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.73 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.10 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.11 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 51.49 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.26 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 276.00 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.62 g
Specific Leaf Area: 175.80 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: intense anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 6.56 mm
Ligule Width: 2.32 mm
Ovule Number: 52
Style Length: 1.70 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad . In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.