Search Results

IMC 31    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: IQUITOS MIXED 31

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 POPULATION

 Motamayor, J.C. et al., 2008
'Iquitos' Population
Subgroup: 'IMC I'   Reference
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
'Iquitos' Population
 Reference

 GENOME DATA LINKS

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 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019  Reference    View Associated Data
BioProject: PRJNA558793   NCBI 
 
Run: SRR9938233   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686890
BioSample: SAMN12500394
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000022
Run: SRR9938271   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686852
BioSample: SAMN12500394
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000022
Run: SRR9938332   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686791
BioSample: SAMN12500394
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000022
Run: SRR9938333   NCBI 
Experiment: SRX6686790
BioSample: SAMN12500394
SampleSource: Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Costa Rica, Tree_ID: P000022

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1449     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 31
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22165
   - Local Name: IMC-31
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 31
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 31
   - Year of Accession: 1967
• Cross: IMC 31 x IMC 53 
   - Local Name: IMC - 31 x IMC -53
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 31
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 31
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 31

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Resistant
 Small, L.W., 1966
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
 Phytophthora
Susceptible
 Guiltinan, Mark, 2019
19.08 % Infection (Pod).
Note: percentage of infected pods. Rank calculated using Newman-Keuls test at 5% = CD
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Clement, D. & Sounigo, O., 1992
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 23.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Sounigo, O. et al., 1995
Yield: 1749 kg ha-1 yr-1
 Reference

 BEAN

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: oblong
Number: 45.0
Total Wet Weight: 66.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.96 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.0 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.1 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 8.80 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 180.0 mm
Breadth: 84.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1449
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.06 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.08 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 0.97 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 51.26 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 4.11 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 5
Leaf Area: 303.50 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.15 g
Specific Leaf Area: 142.10 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 115 mm
Length: 234.0 mm
Width: 86.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.70
Basal Angle: 92.2 °
Apical Angle: 75.3 °
Petiole Length: 21 mm
Pulvinus Length: 10 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.50 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.26 mm
Ligule Width: 2.55 mm
Ovule Number: 52
Style Length: 2.11 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Motamayor, J.C., Lachenaud, P., da Silva e Mota, J.W., Loor, R., Kuhn, D.N., Brown, J.S. & Schnell, R.J. (2008) Geographic and Genetic Population Differentiation of the Amazonian Chocolate Tree (Theobroma cacao L).. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3311. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003311
Guiltinan, Mark (2019) Theobroma cacao Disease Resistance : Discovery and Functional Characterization of Genes Regulating Plant Immunity in Perennial Crops. NCBI
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Small, L.W. (1966) Routine screening of clones for Ceratocystis.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1966. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, p.48.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Sounigo, O., N'Goran, J., Coulibaly, N., Clement, D. & Lachenaud, P. (1995) Evaluation de clones de cacaoyers pour la productivite, la resistance aux mirides et la resistance a la pourriture des cabosses.. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yammoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire, 1993. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 375-381.
Clement, D. & Sounigo, O. (1992) Ivory Coast Database.. D. Clement & O. Sounigo, IRCC, Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.