Search Results

IMC 14    Theobroma cacao

 Pound, F.J. (1938)
Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.

Derivation: Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo (Mid Channel).
Collected by Pound.
Location: Iquitos, PER.

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Main type - very large lagarta calabacillo pods, oval, very smooth, normal blanco. Seeds large, flat, losenge shaped. 'Hybrid group'-large pods, somewhat warty at stem end but smooth and round like calabacillo at the apex. Third group-small, oval, warty pods, dense flowering. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. The common features of this group of clones are the high ovule numbers (65+) and a specific type of anthocyanin pigmentation in the stamens and base of the corolla. Posnette, 1945a [POS45A]. Petioles are of a type intermediate between those of Nanay (see NA) and Parinari (see PA) types; the constriction is usually short and narrow.

Notes:  Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom.

Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU].

Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm.

Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.
 

Synonyms: G VI 315, IQUITOS MIXED 14

 NOTES

Pound, 1938a [POU38A]. Pods probably collected from at least two groups of trees which were free of Witches' Broom. Bartley, 1995a [BAR95A]. They are probably the progenies of two trees, later propagated as the clones P 18 [POU] and P 21 [POU]. Pound, 1943b [POU43B]. 112 plants were planted at Marper farm. Bartley, 1997a, [BAR97A] The progeny of the individual clones is not documented and it is important not to consider the IMC clones as one homogeneous group.

 GENOME DATA LINKS

 Cornejo, O.E. et al., 2018  Reference
BioProject: PRJNA486011   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Project: PRJNA486011   EVA (project)   EVA (analysis) 
 
Run: SRR7774329   NCBI   ENA FASTQ 
Experiment: SRX4629495
BioSample: SAMN09934467
SampleSource: Trinidad, Tree_ID: 17733

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 1634     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: IMC 14
   - Year of Accession: 2007
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 949
   - Local Name: IMC 14
• Accession: 949
   - Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC-14
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 22380
   - Local Name: IMC-14
   - Year of Accession: 2017
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: IMC - 14
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 315
   - Local Name: IMC 14
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
   - Year of Accession: 1997
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: IMC 14
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668471     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 14
   - Year of Accession: 2008
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 35974     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: IMC 14
   - Year of Accession: 2003

 DISEASE

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 Canker
30.00 % Infection (Trunk).
Note: Percentage infection of trunk..
 Sharma, M., 1992
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
 Vascular Streak Dieback
13.33 % Infection
Note: 18 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 92.5 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 21.4 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 129.8 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 24.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 25.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 43.4
Dry Weight: 1.08 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 52.7
Total Dry Weight: 40.5 g
Dry Weight: 0.77 g
Note: 50 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 53.0
Total Wet Weight: 64.8 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.75 g
Cotyledon Length: 20.9 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.9 mm
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 56.3
Dry Weight: 0.94 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 55.30 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 56.18 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 54.18 %
Note: 9 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 2.70 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 181.0 mm
Breadth: 90.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 188.5 mm
Breadth: 88.4 mm
Weight: 600.3 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.10
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 1634
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.55 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.11 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.20 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 41.43 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.78 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 6
Leaf Area: 336.10 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.29 g
Specific Leaf Area: 148.50 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Colour: intermediate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 124 mm
Length: 277.0 mm
Width: 99.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 133.2 °
Apical Angle: 75.8 °
Petiole Length: 19 mm
Pulvinus Length: 14 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Allen, J.B., 1988
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 10.50 mm
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical)
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.95 mm
Ligule Width: 2.31 mm
Ovule Number: 54
Style Length: 2.19 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference

Pound, F.J. (1938) Cacao and Witchbroom Disease of South America with notes on other species of Theobroma. . Archives of Cocoa Research 1: pp. 26-71.
Cornejo, O.E., Muh-Ching Yee, Victor Dominguez, Mary Andrews, Alexandra Sockell, Erika Strandberg, Donald Livingstone III, Conrad Stack, Alberto Romero, Pathmanathan Umaharan, Stefan Royaert, Nilesh R. Tawari, Pauline Ng, Osman Gutierrez, Wilbert Phillips, Keithanne Mockaitis, Carlos D. Bustamante & Juan C. Motamayor (2018) Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process. Commun Biol 1, 167
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Honduras - CEDEC (1994) List of accessions in CEDEC, La Masica, Honduras.. J.A. Sanchez, FHIA, Honduras. Personal Communication.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
PNG - Cocoa & Coconut Research (1998) Current list of cocoa accessions at the PNG CCRI.. Mr. Mathias Faure, Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd.. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Sharma, M. (1992) The performance of imported F0 clones at United Plantations Bhd.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Allen, J.B. (1988) Geographical variation and population biology in wild Theobroma cacao. . PhD. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K. pp. 197.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.