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ICS 98    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: I S C 98

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
TRINITARIO TYPE x CRIOLLO [CRI] 
 - Hda Poole, Rio Claro.
   Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
 Mother to:
C 45 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 71 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 83 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
FP 6    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993
FP 7    Lee, M.T. et al., 1993
 Father to:
C 70 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 83 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 88 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 91 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 275
   - Local Name: ICS 98
   - Year of Accession: 1981
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10336
   - Local Name: ICS-98
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: IDN-13-TCAC-00078
   - Local Name: ICS98
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 98

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Intermediate
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Intermediate
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Resistant
 Iton, E.F., 1959
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1980
 Vascular Streak Dieback
25.00 % Infection
Note: 18 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Intermediate
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Intermediate
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Resistant (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
Tolerant (Cushion/Flower).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 90.0 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 26.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 86.2 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 28.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 86.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 28.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 30.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 34.0
Dry Weight: 1.11 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 30.7
Total Dry Weight: 35.6 g
Dry Weight: 1.15 g
Note: 20 plants sampled
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 30.5
Total Dry Weight: 35.5 g
Dry Weight: 1.16 g
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 29.0
Total Wet Weight: 45.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.13 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.1 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 73 %
Colour Light Purple: 27 %
Shape: elongate/round
Length: 22.7 mm
Width: 13.3 mm
Thickness: 9.7 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.80 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.10 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 73 %
Colour Light Purple: 27 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 1.80 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.10 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.7 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 54.20 %
Note: 6 plants sampled
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 53.40 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 55.26 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 51.22 %
Note: 5 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.40 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 172.0 mm
Breadth: 76.0 mm
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: very slight
Apex Form: slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Colour: absent anthocyanin
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: cundeamor
Husk Thickness: 12.5 mm
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 79.0 mm
Colour: red and yellow
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.24
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: cundeamor
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 12.5 mm
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 79.0 mm
Colour: light red, yellow and green / bright red and yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.20
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: intense green
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: brownish orange
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: yellow
 Reference

 LEAF

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 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 2.56
Basal Angle: 122.0 °
Apical Angle: 109.0 °
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 111 mm
Length: 196.0 mm
Width: 79.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.50
Basal Angle: 97.7 °
Apical Angle: 82.0 °
Petiole Length: 11 mm
Pulvinus Length: 14 mm
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 2.56
Basal Angle: 122.0 °
Apical Angle: 109.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 6.72 mm
Ligule Width: 2.05 mm
Ovule Number: 33
Style Length: 1.79 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 2.70 mm
Sepal Width: 1.80 mm
Sepal Length: 7.00 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.72
Ligule Length: 1.90 mm
Ligule Width: 1.80 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.08
Ribbon Length: 3.00 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.10 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.09
Ovule Number: 38
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Style Length: 1.50 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 5.50 mm
Pedicel Length: 9.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: intense anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: white
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 2.70 mm
Sepal Colour: green
Sepal Width: 1.80 mm
Sepal Length: 7.00 mm
Ligule Length: 1.90 mm
Ligule Width: 1.80 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.00 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.10 mm
Ovule Number: 38
Style Colour: green (apical), green (basal)
Style Length: 1.50 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 5.50 mm
Pedicel Length: 9.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellow, yellow (ab), green (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of C Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp.4.
Lee, M.T., Tay, E.B., Lamin, K. & Saedi, M. (1993) Catalogue of locally collected clones in Malaysia.. Catalogue compiled by the Malaysian Cocoa Board, Sabah, Malaysia.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Fiji - Naduruloulou (1992) Cocoa collection - Fiji Naduruloulou Research Station.. G. Prasad, Koronivia Research Station, Nausari, Fiji. Personal Communication.
Gabon - SOCAGAB (1992) Liste des clones de la collection du C.M.C.E. de Minkong (Oyem, Gabon).. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD, Kourou, Guyane. Personal Communication.
Susilo, A. (2008) The list of germplasm collected by ICCRI.. Personal communication from Agung Susilo, July 2008.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Iton, E.F. (1959) Studies on a wilt disease of cacao at River Estate.. A Report on Cacao Research, 1957-1958. The Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1993) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. T.N. Sreenivasan, CRU, Trinidad. Personal Communication.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1980) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1975-1980. University of the West Indies, Trinidad. p.16.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Trinidad - CRU (1994) Cocoa Research Unit. Report for 1994.. The University of the West Indies.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.