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ICS 48    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: EET 303 [IMP], G VI 217, EET IMP 303, I S C 48

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
SI 48 /3    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 48 /4    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
 Father to:
SI 48 /3    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 48 /4    Trinidad - CRU, 2002

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 146     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1988
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 269
   - Local Name: ICS 48
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS-48
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21840
   - Local Name: ICS-48
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1954
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 217
   - Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 48
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: TARS 17845     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 48
   - Year of Accession: 1976

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 75.7 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 18.7 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Pod Index: 20.1 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Pod Index: 20.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 40.3
Dry Weight: 1.32 g
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 72.0 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.38 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 14.3 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 34.0
Total Wet Weight: 71.6 g
Total Dry Weight: 89.7 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.45 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 14.4 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.8 mm
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: slight
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 169.0 mm
Breadth: 80.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Note: Pod wall hardness > 1.6 MPa ? 2.0 MPa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Shape: amelonado
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: rounded
Rugosity: intense
Husk Thickness: 13.13 mm
Size: medium
Length: 169.5 mm
Breadth: 80.9 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Husk Weight: 322.13 g
Placenta Weight: 4.72 g
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.09
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 146
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 5.23 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.10 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.52 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 51.85 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.53 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 309.40 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 2.26 g
Specific Leaf Area: 139.40 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 120 mm
Length: 254.0 mm
Width: 91.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 122.8 °
Apical Angle: 81.3 °
Petiole Length: 24 mm
Pulvinus Length: 20 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2016
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.29 mm
Ligule Width: 2.95 mm
Ovule Number: 40
Style Length: 2.17 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1998
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 8.27 mm
Ligule Width: 3.02 mm
Ovule Number: 40
Style Length: 2.24 mm
Pedicel Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - CRU (2002) ICG,T accessions database, reply to queries regarding names new to ICGD.. Dr. David Butler, ICG,T Trinidad. Personal Communication. 12 September 2002.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) CIRAD Montpellier Clone List (Excel Spreadsheet).. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
Chesney, P.E. (2008) Guyana accessions.. Personal communication, September 2008.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2016) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit and flower morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2016.
Trinidad - ICGT (1998) Flower and fruit descriptions.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Flower, fruit and leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.