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ICS 45    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: EET 276 [IMP], EET IMP 276, I S C 45

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
NIC  x Unknown
 - Georges La Vega
   Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
 Mother to:
C 7 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
EET 430 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
G VI 72    India - Kerala, 1996
G VI 75    India - Kerala, 1996
GEN 36 /1    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
GEN 61 /19    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
SI 45 /1    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 45 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 45 /5    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
 Father to:
C 1 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 2 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 26 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 60 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 7 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 77 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 89 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
G VI 77    India - Kerala, 1996
GEN 49    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
SI 45 /1    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 45 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 45 /5    Trinidad - CRU, 2002

 HELD IN

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List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 45
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 45
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 45
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 45
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 234535     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 45
   - Year of Accession: 1939
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 45

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Susceptible
 Iton, E.F., 1959
 Mosaic Virus
Occasional
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
 Vascular Streak Dieback
50.00 % Infection
Note: 19 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Intermediate
 Fonseca, S.E.A & Albuquerque, P.S.B. de, 1996
Intermediate (Leaves).
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Resistant (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Resistant (Pods).
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Tolerant (Cushion/Flower).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant
 Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J., 1977
Tolerant (Vegetative).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994

 PESTS

 Cocoa Beetle
Low Damage
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date

 YIELD

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 21.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Productivity: low
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Yield (wet beans per tree): 10.00 kg
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Colour White: Present
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: ovate
Number: 37.0
Total Wet Weight: 68.5 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.27 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.7 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.6 mm
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Colour White: Present
Shape: very plump
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Number: 40.1
Dry Weight: 0.99 g
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 4.60 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: attenuate
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 168.0 mm
Breadth: 79.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: moderate - slight
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Pods Per Tree: 3
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: green
 Reference
 Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin, 1992
Length: 156.7 mm
Breadth: 80.3 mm
Weight: 425.0 g
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.00
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: olive
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 125 mm
Length: 264.0 mm
Width: 96.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.80
Basal Angle: 122.5 °
Apical Angle: 82.5 °
Petiole Length: 24 mm
Pulvinus Length: 19 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.65 mm
Ligule Width: 3.22 mm
Ovule Number: 31
Style Length: 1.91 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture (No Date) Description of clonal cacao trees (mainly ICS clones).. Unpublished notebook, Department of Agriculture, Trinidad.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of C Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp.4.
Ecuador - Pichilingue (1987) Nomina de clones y numero de plantas existentes en la coleccion internacional de germoplasma de cacao, EET, Pichilingue.. Unpublished report, E.E.T. Pichilingue, Ecuador. pp. 18.
India - Kerala (1996) Crop Improvement. Cadbury - KAU Co-operative Cocoa Research Project 9th Annual Report 1996-96. pp. 3-61
Bartley, B.G.D. (1997) List of "DE" (polyembryonic) progenies cultured at UWI.. B.G.D Bartley. Personal Communications.
Trinidad - CRU (2002) ICG,T accessions database, reply to queries regarding names new to ICGD.. Dr. David Butler, ICG,T Trinidad. Personal Communication. 12 September 2002.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Iton, E.F. (1959) Studies on a wilt disease of cacao at River Estate.. A Report on Cacao Research, 1957-1958. The Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Trinidad - CRU (1994) Cocoa Research Unit. Report for 1994.. The University of the West Indies.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Fonseca, S.E.A & Albuquerque, P.S.B. de (1996) Avaliacao de clones de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira em relaçao a incidencia de vassoura-de bruxa.. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador, Brazil, 1996. Cocoa Producers' Alliance.
Enriquez, G. & Soria, V.J. (1977) Mejoramiento genético para resistencia a cinco enfermedades del cacao.. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977. Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria. pp. 45-56.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Palaniappan, S. & Shuhaimi Shamsuddin (1992) Early evaluation of some cocoa germplasm at Pusut Perkhidmatan Pertanian Tun Razak.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.