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ICS 41    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: I S C 41

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Mother to:
SI 41 /1    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /3    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /4    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /5    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
 Father to:
GEBP 123 /A-M [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019
GEBP 165 /A-M [ADI]    Frances Bekele, 2019
SI 41 /1    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /2    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /3    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /4    Trinidad - CRU, 2002
SI 41 /5    Trinidad - CRU, 2002

 HELD IN

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List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21175
   - Local Name: ICS-41
   - Year of Accession: 1996
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS41
List received in 1998   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 41
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 41
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668422     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 41
   - Year of Accession: 1983

 DISEASE

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 Phytophthora
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old)
 A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler, 2003
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Score: 1 (1-8 Scale). Fully grown, unripe detached pods (4-5 months old).
 A.D. Iwaro et al., 2006
 Witches Broom
Tolerant (Vegetative).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Tolerant (Cushion/Flower).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 33.2 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: dark purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 43.0
Total Wet Weight: 43.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.70 g
Cotyledon Length: 19.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 9.7 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.70 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 52.40 %
Testa: 6.00 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: oblong
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 191.0 mm
Breadth: 75.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 148 mm
Length: 299.0 mm
Width: 93.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.20
Basal Angle: 83.2 °
Apical Angle: 70.8 °
Petiole Length: 23 mm
Pulvinus Length: 17 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.84 mm
Ligule Width: 2.76 mm
Ovule Number: 41
Style Length: 2.25 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - CRU (2002) ICG,T accessions database, reply to queries regarding names new to ICGD.. Dr. David Butler, ICG,T Trinidad. Personal Communication. 12 September 2002.
Frances Bekele (2019) Pedigree data for the GEBP clones supplied to ICQC,R (UK) by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Data supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele, April 2019.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1998) Accessions held in the Malaysian Cocoa Board collection, May 1998.. K. Lamin, MCB, Malaysia, Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
A.D. Iwaro & D. R. Butler (2003) Sources of Resistance to Phytophthora Pod Rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad.. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana (October 2003). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
A.D. Iwaro, D.R. Butler & A.B. Eskes (2006) Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2006) 53: 99–109
Trinidad - CRU (1994) Cocoa Research Unit. Report for 1994.. The University of the West Indies.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.