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ICS 16    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: IFC 416 [IMP], G VI 180, I S C 16, IFC IMP 416

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
TRINITARIO TYPE x Unknown
 - Hda Moruga, Sn Antonio
   Morera, J., 1992
 Mother to:
C 23 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 77 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
PBC 113    Chong, C.F. & Shepherd, R., 1986
PBC 121    Chong, C.F. & Shepherd, R., 1986

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 563
   - Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1985
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS-16
List received in 1985   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10313
   - Local Name: ICS-16
   - Year of Accession: 1960
List received in 1989   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1957
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS - 16
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS16
   - Year of Accession: 1974
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 82
   - Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 1995   Reference
• Accession: 180
   - Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1969
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 35
   - Local Name: ICS16
   - Year of Accession: 1993
List received in 1991   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668420     GRIN-Global 
   - Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1967
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 16
   - Year of Accession: 1991

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Intermediate
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Intermediate
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
 Phytophthora
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1993
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1980
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D., 1998
Susceptible, 93.00 % Infection, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Attached and not wounded
 Blaha, G. & Lotode, R., 1976
 Vascular Streak Dieback
88.04 % Infection
Note: 23 plants sampled..
 Subali, S., 1992
 Witches Broom
Resistant
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Susceptible
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Seed Index: 67.1 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 17.6 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 69.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 17.0 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 17.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Seed Index: 57.4 (dried beans per 100g)
Productivity: low - medium
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - Applied Agriculture, 1992
Number: 38.1
Dry Weight: 1.49 g
 Reference
 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 40.6
Total Dry Weight: 58.9 g
Dry Weight: 1.44 g
Note: 36 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Purple: Present
Size: medium
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: light purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 42.0
Total Wet Weight: 84.2 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.38 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.3 mm
Cotyledon Width: 15.0 mm
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour Dark Purple: Absent
Colour Light Purple: Present
Colour Grey: Absent
Colour White: Absent
Colour Mottled: Absent
Number: 34.2
Maximum Number: 51
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.94 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.74 g
Cotyledon Length: 29.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 16.6 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.7 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 85 %
Colour Light Purple: 12 %
Colour White: 1 %
Colour Mottled: 2 %
Shape: flat/round
Length: 25.6 mm
Width: 15.3 mm
Thickness: 8.6 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.20 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.40 g
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 85 %
Colour Light Purple: 12 %
Colour White: 1 %
Colour Mottled: 2 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.20 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.40 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.6 mm
Cotyledon Width: 15.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 8.6 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 53.90 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 56.49 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 51.36 %
Note: 16 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.60 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: moderate
Length: 153.0 mm
Breadth: 93.0 mm
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Hardness: moderate
Note: Hardness > 1.6 and <= 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: moderate
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Husk Thickness: 14.6 mm (17.5 - 11.7)
Length: 179.0 mm
Breadth: 105.0 mm
Colour: high - intense / high anthocyanin (ridge/furrow)
Weight: 863.0 g
Pods Per Tree: 4
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.70
Note: ratio of distances between ridges within a pair and between ridges of two different pairs = 0.76
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: amelonado
Husk Thickness: 15.7 mm
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 96.0 mm
Colour: yellow and red / yellow, red and green (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: very hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.78
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: amelonado
Rugosity: moderate
Husk Thickness: 15.7 mm
Length: 174.0 mm
Breadth: 96.0 mm
Colour: light red, yellow and green / bright red and yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: hard
Length Breadth Ratio: 1.81
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: amelonado
Colour: red
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: brownish orange
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: yellow
 Reference

 LEAF

 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 2.61
Basal Angle: 135.0 °
Apical Angle: 92.0 °
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 2.61
Basal Angle: 135.0 °
Apical Angle: 92.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Sepal Length: 7.62 mm
Ligule Width: 3.01 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Length: 2.20 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin (apical)
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Colour: greyish green
Sepal Width: 2.62 mm
Sepal Length: 10.22 mm
Ligule Length: 8.21 mm
Ligule Width: 2.21 mm
Ovary Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.51 mm
Style Length: 2.08 mm
Staminode Length: 7.97 mm
Pedicel Colour: greyish pink
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
Note: Translation of Methuen colour codes.
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: anthocyanin absent
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 3.10 mm
Sepal Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 8.90 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.67
Ligule Length: 3.40 mm
Ligule Width: 2.50 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.36
Ribbon Length: 3.30 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: intense anthocyanin (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.50 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.27
Ovule Number: 49
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.50 mm
Pedicel Length: 15.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: intense anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), slight anthocyanin (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: white
Stamen Colour: anthocyanin absent
Guide Line Length: 3.10 mm
Sepal Colour: green - white
Sepal Width: 2.40 mm
Sepal Length: 8.90 mm
Ligule Length: 3.40 mm
Ligule Width: 2.50 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.30 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.20 mm
Ovary Length: 1.50 mm
Ovule Number: 49
Style Colour: yellow (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 2.00 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.50 mm
Pedicel Length: 15.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellow, yellow (ab), green (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Morera, J. (1992) Registro Internacional de Cultivares de Cacao.. J. Morera, CATIE, Costa Rica. Computer printout.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of C Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp.4.
Chong, C.F. & Shepherd, R. (1986) Promising Prang Besar cocoa clones.. In: Cocoa and Coconuts: Progress and Outlook. Eds. Pushparajah, E. & Chew Poh Soon. Incorporated Society of Planters, Malaysia. pp.3-20.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Cameroon - IRAD Cameroun (1985) Collection Camerounaise de cacaoyers (situation en Juillet, 1985).. Unpublished report, IRCC Cameroun. Supplied by A.B. Eskes, IRCC Montpellier.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Cote d'Ivoire - IRCC (1989) Liste des clones en collection.. Unpublished Report, IRCC Bingerville, Cote d'Ivoire, Doc. No. 192. D. Clement, IRCC, Cote d'Ivoire. Personal Communication.
EET - Pichilingue (2012) Accessions planted in EET - Pichilingue, Ecuador.. Freddy Amores and Ignacio Sotomayor C, personal communication, February 2012.
Gabon - SOCAGAB (1992) Liste des clones de la collection du C.M.C.E. de Minkong (Oyem, Gabon).. Ph. Lachenaud, CIRAD, Kourou, Guyane. Personal Communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
India - Kerala (1995) Material imported from Reading University Quarantine Facility.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul (2012) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Chumphon Research Center, Thailand.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Suchirat Sakuanrungsirikul, Agricultural Research Officer, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. January 2012.
Togo - IRCC Togo (1991) Collection des clones de cacaoyers presents au Togo.. Unpublished report, IRCC Togo, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1993) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. T.N. Sreenivasan, CRU, Trinidad. Personal Communication.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1980) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1975-1980. University of the West Indies, Trinidad. p.16.
Iwaro, D. (1998) Evalation of accessions for Black Pod.. Personal Communication 30th October 1998. Data sent by email from Dr. Iwaro.
Blaha, G. & Lotode, R. (1976) Un critere primordial de selection du cacaoyer au Cameroun: la resistance a la pourriture brune des cabossees ( Phytophthora palmivora ).. Cafe, Cacao, The 20(2): pp. 97-116.
Subali, S. (1992) MARDI's results on performance of imported primary cocoa clones.. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia - Applied Agriculture (1992) Data from Applied Agriculture Research Unit (AARU).. In: Unpublished Proceedings of MCGC Mini-Seminar on the Performance of Imported Cocoa Clones, 13th October 1992, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: pp. 4.
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.