Search Results

ICS 8    Theobroma cacao

 Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979)
The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.

Derivation: Imperial College Selections.
Location: ICTA, TTO.

Notes:  Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107).

Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound.

Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme.

Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.
 

Synonyms: EET 277 [IMP], EET IMP 277, I S C 8

 NOTES

Lockwood & Gyamfi, 1979 [LOC79A] Selections from farms in Trinidad (1-100) and from Criollo progenies (101-107). Cope, 1949a [COP49A]. One hundred selections were made as a result of a survey started in 1930 by Pound. Bartley, 1993a [BAR93A]. Numbers 1 to 100 were selected from all over Trinidad, numbers 101 to 107 were Criollo trees selected from a farm but all have been lost and numbers greater than 111 are selections made in an experimental programme. Bartley, 1996a [BAR96A]. The ICS material includes several clones which resulted from recent (at that time) introductions. These include Criollos from Nicaragua (ICS 60 and its relatives) or Venezuela. Other ICS clones represent "Amazonian" types originally introduced from the Orinoco. It is likely that several introductions were involved in creating the diversity that existed in Trinidad when Pound started the selection work. Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] From ICS 113 onwards these clones were used as parents in the AX / MX series. The same cross be known by an equivalent C [TTO] name.

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
TRINITARIO TYPE x Unknown
 - Hda Phips Biche
   Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
 Mother to:
AX 122    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 125    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 126    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 127    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 128    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 131    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 132    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 225    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 229    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 62    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 70    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 72    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 73    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
AX 98    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 88 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
CEPEC 21    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 22    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 24    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
CEPEC 25    Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
DE 37    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 67    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 72    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
EET 413 [ECU]    Ecuador - Pichilingue, 1987
GEN 32    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
MX 20 [TTO]    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
 Father to:
AX 8    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 24 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 25 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
C 87 [TRI]    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
DE 45    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 49    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 68    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
DE 75    Bartley, B.G.D., 1997
EQX 108 [EQX]    Trinidad - ICTA (EQX), No Date
THY 10    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 13    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 15    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 16    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 17    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 18    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 19    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 20    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 21    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 26    Trinidad - ICTA, No Date
THY 27    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 38    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979
THY 9    Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O., 1979

 HELD IN

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List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 263
   - Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1978
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1965
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS-8
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 10312
   - Local Name: ICS-8
   - Year of Accession: 1966
List received in 1987   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1983
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS-8
List received in 1992   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1968
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS8
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1954
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
List received in 1994   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1969
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   Progeny data only!
List received in 2016   Reference
• Accession: PI 668495     GRIN-Global 
   - Cross: SCA 6  x ICS 8
   - Local Name: SCA 6 x ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 2008
   Progeny data only!
List received in 2010   Reference
• Accession: MIA 36202     GRIN-Global 
   - Cross: SCA 6  x ICS 8
   - Local Name: SCA 6 X ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 2001
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8
   - Year of Accession: 1989
List received in 1972   Reference
• Local Name: ICS 8

 DISEASE

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 Ceratocystis
Intermediate
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Intermediate
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Resistant
 Iton, E.F., 1959
 Mosaic Virus
Occasional
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
 Phytophthora
Resistant
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Intermediate, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1993
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Sreenivasan, T.N., 1980
Moderate Resistance, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Resistant, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (abaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and punch inoculated
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Pod).
Note: Unripe, Unattached and 3mm stab inoculated
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
Susceptible, sp. P. palmivora (Leaf (adaxial surface)).
Note: Interflush 2, Unattached and not wounded
 Iwaro, D. et al., 1997
 Witches Broom
Intermediate (Leaves).
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Resistant (Cushion/Flower).
 Trinidad - CRU, 1994
Resistant
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Susceptible (Field Reaction).
 Butler, D.R. et al., 1998
Susceptible
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Susceptible (Pods).
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date

 PESTS

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 Cocoa Beetle
Low Damage
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Intermediate Reaction (Xyleborus)
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
 Thrips
Intermediate Reaction
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Moderate Damage
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date

 YIELD

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Seed Index: 60.9 (dried beans per 100g)
Pod Index: 15.5 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 19.8 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Productivity: very low
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Yield (wet beans per tree): 20.00 kg
 Reference

 BEAN

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Number: 39.1
Total Dry Weight: 64.6 g
Dry Weight: 1.64 g
Note: 41 plants sampled
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 40.0
Total Wet Weight: 70.1 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.26 g
Cotyledon Length: 23.5 mm
Cotyledon Width: 13.9 mm
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour Purple: 88 %
Colour Light Purple: 12 %
Shape: flat/round
Length: 25.2 mm
Width: 15.3 mm
Thickness: 9.7 mm
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.30 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.50 g
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Colour Dark Purple: Present
Colour Purple: Present
Shape: plump
Size: medium - large
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour Dark Purple: 88 %
Colour Light Purple: 22 %
Cotyledon Wet Weight: 2.30 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 1.50 g
Cotyledon Length: 25.2 mm
Cotyledon Width: 15.3 mm
Cotyledon Thickness: 9.7 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Butterfat Content: 52.40 %
Maximum Butterfat Content: 55.71 %
Minimum Butterfat Content: 49.74 %
Note: 9 plants sampled
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 5.50 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

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 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Size: large
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: elliptical
Basal Constriction: moderate
Apex Form: acute
Rugosity: slight
Length: 159.0 mm
Breadth: 77.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: soft
Note: Hardness <= 1.6 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Basal Constriction: absent
Apex Form: obtuse - slightly acute
Rugosity: slight
Colour: absent anthocyanin
Pods Per Tree: 1
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Shape: cundeamor
Husk Thickness: 9.2 mm
Length: 173.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: yellow / yellow and red (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: soft
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.16
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Shape: cundeamor
Rugosity: intense
Husk Thickness: 9.2 mm
Length: 173.0 mm
Breadth: 85.0 mm
Colour: yellow and green / yellow (ridge/furrow)
Hardness: moderate
Length Breadth Ratio: 2.03
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Shape: angoleta
Colour: green
 Reference

 FLUSH

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 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: moderate anthocyanin
 Reference
 Costa Rica - CATIE, 1981
Colour: light brown
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Colour: intense anthocyanin
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Colour: yellow
 Reference

 LEAF

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 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Length to Width Ratio: 3.42
Basal Angle: 142.0 °
Apical Angle: 79.0 °
 Reference
 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 141 mm
Length: 310.0 mm
Width: 93.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 3.40
Basal Angle: 92.6 °
Apical Angle: 90.8 °
Petiole Length: 21 mm
Pulvinus Length: 18 mm
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Length to Width Ratio: 3.42
Basal Angle: 142.0 °
Apical Angle: 79.0 °
 Reference

 FLOWER

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 Malaysia - BAL Plantations, 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Bartley, B.G.D., 1970
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: intense anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 8.20 mm
Ligule Width: 2.81 mm
Ovule Number: 39
Style Length: 2.21 mm
Pedicel Colour: red
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J., 1967
Bud Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ligule Colour: slight anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: slight anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 2.70 mm
Sepal Colour: slight anthocyanin
Sepal Width: 2.10 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Sepal Length to Width Ratio: 3.43
Ligule Length: 2.40 mm
Ligule Width: 2.20 mm
Ligule Length to Width Ratio: 1.60
Ribbon Length: 3.40 mm
Ribbon Colour: slight anthocyanin
Ovary Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.40 mm
Ovary Length to Width Ratio: 1.45
Ovule Number: 48
Style Colour: anthocyanin absent (apical), anthocyanin absent (basal)
Style Length: 1.90 mm
Staminode Colour: intense anthocyanin
Staminode Length: 7.30 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: intense anthocyanin, intense anthocyanin (ab), moderate anthocyanin (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
Pigmented Spot on Pollen Sac: absent
Self Compatibility: self incompatible
 Reference
 A. González & M. Ventura, 2007
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture, No Date
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference
 Morera, J. & Mora, A., 1990
Bud Colour: green
Ligule Colour: green
Stamen Colour: negligible anthocyanin
Guide Line Length: 2.70 mm
Sepal Colour: green
Sepal Width: 2.10 mm
Sepal Length: 7.60 mm
Ligule Length: 2.40 mm
Ligule Width: 2.20 mm
Ribbon Length: 3.40 mm
Ribbon Colour: green
Ovary Width: 1.00 mm
Ovary Length: 1.40 mm
Ovule Number: 48
Style Colour: white (apical), white (basal)
Style Length: 1.90 mm
Staminode Colour: yellow
Staminode Length: 7.30 mm
Pedicel Length: 13.00 mm
Pedicel Colour: yellow, yellow (ab), green - white (basal)
Hairs on Upper Surface of Sepal: present
Pigmented Glands on Lower Surface of Sepal: present
Horns at Base of Guide Lines: absent
 Reference
 Morera, J. et al., 1991
Self Compatibility: self compatible
 Reference

Lockwood, G. & Gyamfi, M.M.O. (1979) The CRIG cocoa germplasm collection with notes on codes used in the breeding programme at Tafo and elsewhere.. Technical Bulletin, No. 10, Cocoa Research Institute, Tafo, Ghana. pp. 62.
Trinidad - Dept of Agriculture (No Date) Description of clonal cacao trees (mainly ICS clones).. Unpublished notebook, Department of Agriculture, Trinidad.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of AX Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp 18.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of C Crosses.. Unpublished report, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp.4.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1997) List of "DE" (polyembryonic) progenies cultured at UWI.. B.G.D Bartley. Personal Communications.
Ecuador - Pichilingue (1987) Nomina de clones y numero de plantas existentes en la coleccion internacional de germoplasma de cacao, EET, Pichilingue.. Unpublished report, E.E.T. Pichilingue, Ecuador. pp. 18.
Trinidad - ICTA (EQX) (No Date) List of the parentage of EQX accessions.. Untitled manuscript, Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp.1.
Trinidad - ICTA (No Date) List of THY Crosses.. Untitled manuscript, Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. pp.1.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Almeida, C.M.V.C. de, Barriga, J.P., Machado, P.F.R. & Bartley, B.G.D. (1987) Evolucao do programa de conservacao dos recursos geneticos de cacau na Amazonia Brasileira.. CEPLAC/DEPEA, Boletim Tecnico, Belem, Brasil 5: pp.108.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Colombia - ICA Palmira (1990) List of clones held at ICA Palmira.. F. Ocampo Rojas, ICA, Colombia.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
Dominican Republic - CDC (1987) Informe de los trabajos de indentificacion clonal realizados por el Dr. B.G.Bartley durante su visita a la Estacion "Mata Larga".. Unpublished of the Comision del Cacau, Dominican Republic. pp 14
IDIAF (2011) Cocoa accessions held in the Dominican Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Research (IDIAF).. M. Ventura, personal communication, September 2011.
Fiji - Naduruloulou (1992) Cocoa collection - Fiji Naduruloulou Research Station.. G. Prasad, Koronivia Research Station, Nausari, Fiji. Personal Communication.
Philippe Lachenaud (2012) F. Guiana database, CIRAD-CP.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. Dr. Philippe Lachenaud, CIRAD Montpellier, France, January 2012.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
Chesney, P.E. (2008) Guyana accessions.. Personal communication, September 2008.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Nigeria - CRIN (1994) CRIN Cocoa germplasm.. S.A. Olatoye, CRIN, Nigeria. Personal Communication.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
USDA, ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (2016) List of cocoa accessions held at Mayaguez in April 2016.. USDA-ARS GRIN-Global. [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
USDA-ARS, SHRS, NCGR, National Germplasm Repository, Miami, Florida, USA. (2010) List of cocoa accessions held at Miami and Coconut Grove (Plant Introduction Station) in July, 2010.. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Perez, A.Z., Reyes, H.E. & Reyes, L.C. (1972) Programa de mejoramiento genetico de cacao en Venezuela.. MAC, Caucagua, Venezuela, pp. 131.
Morera, J. & Mora, A. (1990) Banco de Germoplasma de Cacao del CATIE.. Information supplied on computer diskette by CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Enriquez, G.A. & Soria, V.J. (1967) Cacao Cultivars Register.. IICA Teaching and Research Centre, Costa Rica
Iton, E.F. (1959) Studies on a wilt disease of cacao at River Estate.. A Report on Cacao Research, 1957-1958. The Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean.
Butler, D.R., Iwaro, A.D., Thevenin, J.-M., Bekele, F., Sounigo, O., Christopher, Y. & Mooledhar, V. (1998) Individual Institute Reports - Trinidad & Tobago, CRU.. Report on the IPGRI project: Cocoa Germplasm Utilisation and Conservation, A Global Approach. Appendix to General Progress Report of Year 1.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1993) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. T.N. Sreenivasan, CRU, Trinidad. Personal Communication.
Sreenivasan, T.N. (1980) Screening for resistance to Black Pod.. Cocoa Research Unit Annual Report on Cocoa Research 1975-1980. University of the West Indies, Trinidad. p.16.
Iwaro, D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1997) Phytophthora resistance in cacao (Theobroma cacao): Influence of pod morphological characteristics.. Plant Pathology 46: pp. 557-565
Trinidad - CRU (1994) Cocoa Research Unit. Report for 1994.. The University of the West Indies.
Iwaro, D., Sreenivasan, T.N. & Umaharan, P. (1997) Foliar resistance to Phytophthora palmivora as an indicator of pod resistance in Theobroma cacao.. Plant Disease 81(6): pp. 619-624
Malaysia - BAL Plantations (1991) Results from cocoa butter content determinations using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis.. G. Lockwood, CDC, U.K. Personal Communication.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Costa Rica - CATIE (1981) Genetic Resources of Cacao. A Catalogue of the CATIE Collection.. J.M.M. Engels, Tropical Agricultural Research and Training Centre, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Technical Bulletin No. 7: pp. 191.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1970) A preliminary catalogue of the cacao germplasm held at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad.. University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Morera, J., Paredes, A. & Mora, A. (1991) Germoplasma de cacao en el CATIE entre 1947 y 1991, Programa II: Generacion y transferencia de tecnologia.. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 49.
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.
A. González & M. Ventura (2007) Autocompatibilidad Sexual de Clones de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). In: Resultados de investigación en cacao. IDIAF, 2007