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AMAZ 3 /2    Theobroma cacao

 Chalmers, W.S. (1973)
Report on a visit to Ecuador, Peru, and Brasil, March 1st-April 15th 1973.. Unpublished Report. Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp. 31.

Derivation: r. AMAZonas.
Collected by INIAP/UWI Chalmers.
Location: R. Amazonas nr Iquitos, ECU.

(Chalmers, 1973a [CHA73A]) AMAZ 3 [CHA] to AMAZ 10 [CHA] and AMAZ 15 [CHA] were selected from a planted area of cocoa with trees showing a range of pod types from five pairs of very distinct, slightly rugose ridges to a very smooth ridgeless calabacillo type. Most had a slight bottleneck and several had a pronounced "blanco" foundation colour. Several pods showed a very characteristic slightly rough, minutely pimpled surface. Some had a very hard pod wall (AMAZ 5, 7 and 8 [CHA]). The number of seeds per pod varied between 11 and 49. All the seeds were dark purple, generally small to medium in size and, within the same pod, plump and flattish seed occured. Only AMAZ 3 [CHA] and AMAZ [15] showed any Witches broom infection. AMAZ 11and AMAZ 12 were collected from Iquitos island, where Pound collected the IMC family. Many of the trees growing in the farm had pods very similar to those of IMC 67 although AMAZ 12 had a more Amelonado shaped pod with a fairly hard shell. AMAZ 13 [CHA] and AMAZ 14 [CHA] had marked pigmentation in the flush. The peduncles were pigmented but not the stamens. The young pods were smooth and Amelonado shaped. The petioles were distinctively short, thick and without any constriction.

Notes:  Collected in 1973.

Bartley, 1997b [BAR97B] The seed collected on this expedition was divided between Trinidad and Ecuador. At present only the data on the seedling progeny at Trinidad is available.
 

 Bartley, B.G.D. (1997)
Comments made by Dr. Bartley during his visit to Reading (4th - 15th August 1997).. B.G.D.Bartley. Personal Communications.

Notes:  The seed collected on this expedition was divided between Trinidad and Ecuador. At present only the data on the seedling progeny at Trinidad is available.
 

Synonyms: AMA 3 /2 [CHA], AMAZONAS 3 /2, G VI 171, AMAZON 3 /2, AMZ 3-2, K 171 [IND]

 NOTES

The seed collected on this expedition was divided between Trinidad and Ecuador. At present only the data on the seedling progeny at Trinidad is available.

 COLLECTION DETAILS

Location: R. Amazonas, Loreto, Peru (cocoa plantation)
Date: April 1973
Coordinates: 73.10 W, 3.45 S
Material collected: Seed
Notes: Iquitos San Jose de Bufeo. 15 min up river from AMAZ 2.
Expedition Code: 73CH
   Chalmers, W.S., 1973

 PEDIGREE DETAILS

 Parents:
AMAZ 3  x Unknown   Bartley, B.G.D., 1997

 HELD IN

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Current List   ICQC,R Website
• Accession: RUQ 91     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: AMAZ 3/2 [CHA]
• Accession: RUQ 91B     ICQC,R 
   - Local Name: AMAZ 3/2 [CHA]
List received in 2012   Reference
• Accession: 503
   - Local Name: AMAZON 3-2
   - Year of Accession: 1983
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ-3.2
   - Year of Accession: 1995
List received in 2018   Reference
• Accession: 21829
   - Local Name: AMAZ-3/2
   - Year of Accession: 2002
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZON3/2
   - Year of Accession: 1980
List received in 2008   Reference
• Accession: VTLC 93
   - Local Name: K-171
List received in 1997   Reference
• Accession: 171
   - Local Name: AMAZ 3 /2 [CHA]
   - Year of Accession: 1990
List received in 2008   Reference
• Local Name: AMZ 3-2
List received in 1990   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZON 3 /2 [CHA]
List received in 1993   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ 3 /2 [CHA]
List received in 2011   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ 3/2 [CHA]
   - Year of Accession: 1973
List received in 2012   Reference
• Local Name: AMAZ 32
   - Year of Accession: 1991

 DISEASE

 Frosty Pod Rot
Moderate Resistance
Note: Artificial reaction to frosty pod.
 Wilbert Phillips et al., 2009

 YIELD

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Pod Index: 28.3 (pods per kg dried beans)
 Reference

 BEAN

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: purple
Shape: elliptical
Number: 36.0
Total Wet Weight: 47.6 g
Cotyledon Dry Weight: 0.98 g
Cotyledon Length: 22.1 mm
Cotyledon Width: 12.0 mm
 Reference

 BUTTERFAT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Testa: 3.10 %
 Reference
 Trinidad - CRU, 1998
Butterfat Content: 56.05 %
Testa: 8.01 %
 Reference

 FRUIT

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Shape: obovate
Basal Constriction: strong
Apex Form: obtuse
Rugosity: slight
Length: 155.0 mm
Breadth: 74.0 mm
Colour: anthocyanin absent
Hardness: hard
Note: Hardness > 2.0 Mpa
 Reference
 Brazil - CEPEC, 1987
Rugosity: intense
 Reference

 PHENOTYPING

 Fiona Lahive, 2017
Accession: RUQ 91
Light Saturated Photosynthetic Rate: 4.77 μmol m2 s-1
Stomatal Conductance: 0.11 mol m2 s-1
Transpiration Rate: 1.54 mmol m2 s-1
Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: 44.31 μmol mol-1
Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency: 3.06 mmol mol-1
Flush Size: 4
Leaf Area: 260.60 cm2
Leaf Dry Weight: 1.78 g
Specific Leaf Area: 151.50 cm2 g-1
 Reference

 CADMIUM

 Lewis, Caleb et al., 2018
Tissue: leaf
Mean Cadmium Content: 4.11 %
Accumulation: high
 Reference
 Lewis, Caleb et al., 2018
Tissue: bean
Mean Cadmium Content: 1.81 %
Accumulation: high
 Reference

 FLUSH

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Colour: slight anthocyanin
 Reference

 LEAF

 Trinidad - ICGT, 1992
Distance from Base to Widest Part: 133 mm
Length: 272.0 mm
Width: 100.0 mm
Length to Width Ratio: 2.70
Basal Angle: 115.9 °
Apical Angle: 69.8 °
Petiole Length: 25 mm
Pulvinus Length: 18 mm
 Reference

 FLOWER

 Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee, 2022
Ligule Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Stamen Colour: moderate anthocyanin
Sepal Length: 7.34 mm
Ligule Width: 2.47 mm
Ovule Number: 46
Style Length: 2.57 mm
Pedicel Colour: reddish
 Reference

Chalmers, W.S. (1973) Report on a visit to Ecuador, Peru, and Brasil, March 1st-April 15th 1973.. Unpublished Report. Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad. pp. 31.
Bartley, B.G.D. (1997) Comments made by Dr. Bartley during his visit to Reading (4th - 15th August 1997).. B.G.D.Bartley. Personal Communications.
CEPEC (2012) Accession list for the CEPEC (Bahia, Brazil) collection.. Dr. José Luis Pires, personal communication, February 2012.
Mars Center for Cocoa Science (2012) Accession list for the Mars Center for Cocoa Science.. Jean-Philippe Marelli, personal communication, February 2012.
Allan Mata (2018) Accession list for the International Cacao Collection at CATIE (IC3).. Personal communication.
CRIG (2012) Cocoa accessions held in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG).. Francis Kwame Padi, personal communication, February 2012.
CPCRI (2008) Cocoa germplasm maintained at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) Regional Station, Vittal, India.. Data supplied to ICGD by email. D. Balasimha, CPCRI Vittal, India, July 2008.
India - Kerala (1997) List of survivng clones from all the introductions.. R.V. Nair, Kerala Agricultural University, India. Personal Communication.
Haeser, E. (2008) Accession list for Bah Lias Research Station, PT.PP. London Sumatra, Indonesia.. Personal communication, March 2010.
Malaysia - ARC Tuaran (1990) List of clones held in the Dept. of Agriculture's collection, at Sabah, Tuaran, Malaysia.. E.B. Tay, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Malaysia. Personal Communication.
Soloman Islands - S.I. Plantns (1993) Inventory of Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd.. Unpublished report, Soloman Islands Plantations Ltd, Soloman Islands, p.1.
CRU (2011) ICG,T accessions.. CRU website.
Philippe Bastide. (2012) Les clones suivis au Vanuatu (unpublished list of accessions).. Personal communication, February 2012.
Wilbert Phillips, José Castillo, Adriana Arciniegas, Allan Mata, Aldo Sánchez, Mariela Leandro, Carlos Astorga, Juan Motamayor, Bill Guyton, Ed Seguine & Ray Schnell (2009) Overcoming the Main Limiting Factors of Cacao Production in Central America through the use of Improved Clones Developed at CATIE. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Cocoa Research Conference, Bali, Indonesia (November 2009). Cocoa Producers' Alliance, Lagos, Nigeria.
Frances Bekele & Gillian Bidaisee (2022) Morphological data from the International Cocoa Collection (ICG,T) maintained by the Cocoa Research Centre (CRC), Trinidad & Tobago.. Unpublished data on fruit, bean, flower and flush morphology supplied as an Excel spreadsheet by Frances Bekele. Last update March 2022.
Trinidad - CRU (1998) Fat Analysis Data.. Data supplied on computer diskette by F. Bekele, CRU, Trinidad.
Brazil - CEPEC (1987) List of clones in the CEPEC, Bahia, Brazil collection.. Computer printout from CEPEC. Supplied by B.G.D. Bartley, CEPEC, Brazil.
Fiona Lahive (2017) Phenotypic data from climate change trials.. Personal communication.
Lewis, Caleb, Adrian M. Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie & Pathmanathan Umaharan (2018) Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.. Science of the Total Environment 640–641, 696–703
Trinidad - ICGT (1992) Leaf descriptors.. Unpublished data supplied on computer diskette by International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, University of the West Indies, Trinidad.